gismu



 ↑

bacru
{ba'u }
utter
x1 utters verbally/says/phonates/speaks {vocally makes sound}
x2 also voices; does not necessarily imply communication or audience; {'says' is usually cusku}

{cf. krixa, cusku, casnu, tavla, voksa, pinka}

 ↑

badna
{}
banana
x1 is a banana/plantain {fruit/plant}
of species/breed x2 {cf. grute}

 ↑

badri
{dri }
sad
x1 is sad/depressed/dejected/{unhappy/feels sorrow/grief}
about x2 {abstraction}

{cf. klaku, gleki, betri, cinmo, junri}

 ↑

bajra
{baj }
run
x1 runs on surface x2 using limbs x3 with gait x4 {cf. cadzu, klama, litru, stapa, plipe, cpare}

 ↑

bakfu
{baf }
bundle ; 'pack'
x1 is a bundle/package/cluster/clump/pack {shape/form}
containing x2, held together by x3 {cf. daski, dakli, tanxe}

 ↑

bakni
{bak }
bovine ; 'ox'
x1 is a cow/cattle/kine/ox/{bull/steer/calf}
{beef-producer/bovine}
of species/breed x2 {cf. danlu}

 ↑

bakri
{}
chalk
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of chalk from source x2 in form x3 {cf. pinsi, blabi, jilka}

 ↑

baktu
{}
bucket
x1 is a bucket/pail/can/deep, solid, wide-topped container of contents x2, made of material x3 {cf. botpi, patxu, tansi, lante, lanka}

 ↑

balji
{}
bulb ; 'bulge'
x1 is a bulb {body-part}
of plant/species x2; {metaphor: rounded, bulgy} {cf. punli, batke}

 ↑

balni
{}
balcony
x1 is a balcony/overhang/ledge/shelf of building/structure x2 {cf. kajna}

 ↑

balre
{ba'e }
blade
x1 is a blade of tool/weapon x2 {cf. dakfu, tunta, tutci, guska, kinli, katna}

 ↑

balvi
{bav }
future ; 'later'
x1 is in the future of/later than/after x2 in time sequence;
x1 is latter; x2 is former {also sequel, succeed, successor, follow, come{s}
after; time ordering only {use lidne otherwise}

aorist in that x1 may overlap in time with x2 as long as it extends afterwards; non-aorist future {= cfabalvi}; {cf. lidne, cabna, purci, farna}

 ↑

bancu
{bac }
beyond
x1 exceeds/is beyond limit/boundary x2 from x3 in property/amount x4 {ka/ni}

on the other side of a bound, but not necessarily directly 'across' nor at the shortest plausible distance {per ragve}

also not limited to position in space;
{cf. dukse, ragve, zmadu, kuspe}

 ↑

bandu
{bad }
defend
x1 {event}
defends/protects x2 {object/state}
from threat/peril/potential x3 {event}

also secures {verb}

x1 wards/resists x3; protective cover/shield {= badgai}

{cf. ckape, fanta, fapro, marbi, rivbi, zunti, snura, binra, lunbe, pulji}

 ↑

banfi
{}
amphibian
x1 is an amphibian of species/breed x2 {cf. danlu, respa}

 ↑

bangu
{ban bau }
language
x1 is a/the language/dialect used by x2 to express/communicate x3 {si'o/du'u, not quote}

 ↑

{also tongue}; {cf. tance, cusku, ve tavla, valsi, gerna, jufra, natmi, slaka}

 ↑

banli
{bal ba'i }
great ; 'grand'
x1 is great/grand in property x2 {ka}
by standard x3 {indicates a subjective greatness, as compared to the objective standard implied for barda; {synonyms, possibly requiring tanru:}
extraordinary, illustrious, magnificent, impressive, awesome, grandiose, august, inspiring, special, majestic, distinguished, eminent, splendor, stately, imposing {all generally zabna}

 ↑

; terrible {mabla}

 ↑

}; {cf. barda, nobli, se sinma, pluja, misno, vajni, fasnu, cizra, traji, mutce, se manci}

 ↑

banro
{ba'o }
grow
x1 grows/expands {an increasing development}
to size/into form x2 from x3 {also rising, developing;
x1 gets bigger/enlarges/increases}; {cf. farvi, zenba, jmina, barda, makcu, ferti}

 ↑

banxa
{bax }
bank
x1 is a bank owned by/in banking system x2 for banking function{s}
x3 {event}

 ↑

{cf. sorcu, zarci, canja, kagni}

 ↑

banzu
{baz }
suffice
x1 {object}
suffices/is enough/sufficient for purpose x2 under conditions x3 {cf. dukse, claxu, nitcu, ricfu, curmi}

 ↑

bapli
{bap bai }
force ; 'compel'
x1 {force}
{ka}
forces/compels event x2 to occur;
x1 determines property x2 to manifest {also constrains; requires success, unlike the physics term {better expressed by danre}

 ↑

}; {cf. fanta, rinju, jimte, jitro, rinka, krinu, zukte, randa, danre, cmavo list bai, marxa, tinsa, xarnu}

 ↑

barda
{bra }
big ; 'large'
x1 is big/large in property/dimension{s}
x2 {ka}
as compared with standard/norm x3 {cf. banli, clani, ganra, condi, plana, cmalu, rotsu, banro, xanto}

 ↑

bargu
{bag }
arch
x1 arches/curves over/around x2 and is made of x3;
x1 is an arch over/around x2 of material x3 {also arc; x2 need not be an object, but may be a point or volume}; {cf. cripu, kruvi, korcu, condi}

 ↑

 ↑

barja
{}
bar
x1 is a tavern/bar/pub serving x2 to audience/patrons x3 {cf. gusta, birje, jikru, sanmi, vanju, xotli, ckafi, se pinxe}

 ↑

barna
{ba'a }
mark
x1{s}
is a/are mark{s}

 ↑

/spot{s}
on x2 of material x3 {ba'armo'a for a pattern of marks}; {cf. sinxa, pixra, se ciska, se prina}

 ↑

bartu
{bar }
out
x1 is on the outside of x2;
x1 is exterior to x2 {cf. jibni, nenri, sruri, lamji, korbi, calku, vasru}

 ↑

basna
{}
emphasize ; 'accent'
x1 emphasizes/accentuates/gives emphasis/stress/accent to x2 by {action}
x3 {also: say forcefully}
{cf. , pandi}

 ↑

basti
{bas }
replace ; 'substitute'
x1 replaces/substitutes for/instead of x2 in circumstance x3;
x1 is a replacement/substitute {also:
x1 trades places with x2}; {cf. cmavo list ba'i, binra}

 ↑

batci
{bat }
bite
x1 bites/pinches x2 on/at specific locus x3 with x4 {bite through {= batka'a, batygre}

 ↑

; pinch {= cinzybatci}

 ↑

}; {cf. denci, jgalu, guska, citka}

 ↑

batke
{}
button
x1 is a button/knob/{handle}
on/for item x2, with purpose x3, made of material x4 {cf. jadni, balji, punji, jgari, lasna}

 ↑

bavmi
{}
barley
x1 is a quantity of barley {grain}
of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

baxso
{}
Malay-Indonesian ; 'Bahasa'
x1 reflects Malay-Indonesian common language/culture in aspect x2 {cf. meljo, bindo}

 ↑

bebna
{beb }
foolish ; 'boob'
x1 is foolish/silly in event/action/property {folly}
{ka}
x2;
x1 is a boob {cf. fenki, xajmi, prije, fliba}

 ↑

bemro
{bem be'o }
North American
x1 reflects North American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2 {cf. merko, kadno, xispo, mexno}

 ↑

bende
{bed be'e }
crew ; 'band'
x1 is a crew/team/gang/squad/band of persons x2 directed/led by x3 organized for purpose x4 {
x1 is a mass; x2 is a set completely specified}

 ↑

; {also orchestra, outfit; x3 conductor; business, not necessarily incorporated {= cajbe'e, venbe'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. gunma, girzu, dansu, jatna, jitro, kagni, kamni, minde, ralju, cecmu, gidva}

 ↑

bengo
{beg }
Bengali
x1 reflects Bengali/Bangladesh culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. xindo}

 ↑

benji
{bej be'i }
transfer ; 'send'
x1 transfers/sends/transmits x2 to receiver x3 from transmitter/origin x4 via means/medium x5 {also possibly "sharing"; no {complete}
alienation from origin is implied}; {x5 carrier}; {cf. muvdu, dunda, mrilu, nirna, xruti, cradi, tivni, preja, cmavo list be'i, bevri, mrilu, tcana}

 ↑

bersa
{bes be'a }
son
x1 is a son of mother/father/parents x2 {not necessarily biological} {also filial}; {cf. verba, nanla, nakni, nanmu, patfu, mamta, bruna, rirni, rorci, panzi, tixnu}

 ↑

berti
{ber }
north
x1 is to the north/northern side {right-hand-rule pole}
of x2 according to frame of reference x {cf. snanu, stici, stuna, farna}

 ↑

besna
{ben }
brain
x1 is a/the brain {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: intelligence, mental control} {also cerebral}; {cf. menli, stedu, rango, pensi}

 ↑

betfu
{bef be'u }
abdomen ; 'belly'
x1 is a/the abdomen/belly/lower trunk {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: midsection} {also stomach {= runtyrango}

 ↑

, digestive tract {= befctirango}

 ↑

}; {cf. cutne, livga, canti}

 ↑

betri
{bet }
tragedy ; 'tragic'
x1 is a tragedy/disaster/tragic for x2 {cf. badri, xlali, morsi, binra}

 ↑

bevri
{bev bei }
carry ; 'bear'
x1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo x2 to x3 from x4 over path x5;
x1 is a carrier/{porter} {alienation from x2 to x3 is implied}; {cf. marce, muvdu, benji, klama}

 ↑

bi
{biv }
8 digit/number: 8 {digit}

 ↑

bi'i
{biz }
unordered interval non-logical interval connective: unordered between ... and ... {rafsi represents any interval}

 ↑

bidju
{}
bead
x1 is a bead/pebble {shape/form}
of material x2 {cf. bolci, canre, lakse, dirgo}

 ↑

bifce
{bic }
bee
x1 is a bee/wasp/hornet of species/breed x2 {cf. cinki, sfani, lakse}

 ↑

bikla
{bik }
whip ; 'beat, lash'
x1 whips/lashes/snaps {a sudden violent motion} {cf. skori, darxi}

 ↑

bilga
{big }
obliged
x1 is bound/obliged to/has the duty to do/be x2 in/by standard/agreement x3;
x1 must do x2 {also x3 frame of reference}; {cf. zifre, fuzme}

 ↑

bilma
{bi'a }
ill
x1 is ill/sick/diseased with symptoms x2 from disease x3 {cf. kanro, mikce, spita, senci, kafke, binra}

 ↑

bilni
{bil }
military
x1 is military/regimented/is strongly organized/prepared by system x2 for purpose x3 {also paramilitary; soldier in its broadest sense - not limited to those trained/organized as part of an army to defend a state {= bilpre}

 ↑

}; {cf. jenmi for a military force, sonci, ganzu, pulji}

 ↑

bindo
{bid }
Indonesian
x1 reflects Indonesian culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. bindo, meljo, baxso}

 ↑

binra
{}
insure
x1 insures/indemnifies x2 {person}
against peril x3 {event}
providing benefit{s}
x4 {event}

 ↑

{also x3 loss; sell/purchase insurance {= binryve'u}

 ↑

, premium {= binrydi'a, or ve binryve'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. bandu, cirko, betri, basti, bilma}

 ↑

binxo
{bix bi'o }
become
x1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x2 under conditions x3 {resultative, not-necessarily agentive, change}; {cf. cenba for non-resultative, galfi for agentive, stika for non-resultative, non-agentive change; zasni}

 ↑

birje
{}
beer
x1 is made of/contains/is a amount of beer/ale/brew brewed from x2 {cf. pinxe, barja, jikru, vanju, xalka, fusra}

 ↑

birka
{bir }
arm
x1 is a/the arm {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: branch with strength} {also elbow {= bircidni}

 ↑

, wrist {= xanterjo'e}

 ↑

, appendage {but jimca, rebla preferred}

 ↑

}; {cf. jimca, janco, xance, rebla}

 ↑

birti
{bit }
certain
x1 is certain/sure/positive/convinced that x2 is true {cf. jetnu, jinvi, krici, djuno, senpi, sruma}

 ↑

bisli
{bis }
ice
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains ice {frozen crystal}
of composition/material x2 {composition including x2, which need not be a complete composition}; {cf. kunra, runme, lenku, krili, bratu, snime, carvi}

 ↑

bitmu
{bim bi'u }
wall
x1 is a wall/fence separating x2 and x3 {unordered}
of/in structure x4 {cf. jbini, sepli, fendi, canko, drudi, kumfa, loldi, senta, snuji, pagre, gacri, kuspe, marbi, vorme}

 ↑

blabi
{lab }
white
x1 is white/very-light colored {color adjective} {pale forms of other colors are a compound of white; e.g. pink {= labyxu'e, xunblabi}
{whereas kandi is used for pale = dimness, lack of intensity}

 ↑

}; {cf. skari, xekri, grusi, kandi, manku, carmi, bakri, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu}

 ↑

blaci
{}
glass
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains glass of composition including x2 {cf. kabri}

 ↑

blanu
{bla }
blue
x1 is blue {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, zirpu, kandi, carmi, cicna}

 ↑

bliku
{bli }
block
x1 is a block {3-dimensional shape/form}
of material x2, surfaces/sides x3 {x3 sides/surfaces should include number, size, and shape; also polyhedron {= pitybli having flat/planar sides/surfaces}

 ↑

}, regular polyhedron {= kubybli, blikubli}

 ↑

, brick {= kitybli}

 ↑

; {cf. tapla, kubli, tanbo, canlu, kojna, sefta, bolci, kurfa, tarmi}

 ↑

bloti
{lot blo lo'i }
boat
x1 is a boat/ship/vessel {vehicle}
for carrying x2, propelled by x3 {cf. falnu, fulta, marce, jatna, sabnu}

 ↑

bo
{bor }
short scope link short scope joiner; joins various constructs with shortest scope and right grouping bolci
{bol boi }
ball
x1 is a ball/sphere/orb/globe {shape/form}
of material x2;
x1 is a spherical object {made of x2 {also round}; {cf. bliku, cukla, bidju, gunro}

 ↑

bongu
{bog bo'u }
bone
x1 is a/the bone/ivory {body-part}, performing function x2 in body of x3; {metaphor: calcium} {x2 is likely an abstract: may be structure/support for some body part, but others as well such as the eardrum bones; the former can be expressed as {tu'a le {body-part}}

 ↑

; cartilage/gristle {= ranbo'u}

 ↑

, skeleton {= bo'urgreku}

 ↑

}; {cf. greku, denci, jirna, sarji}

 ↑

botpi
{bot bo'i }
bottle
x1 is a bottle/jar/urn/flask/closable container for x2, made of material x3 with lid x4 {cf. baktu, lante, patxu, tansi, tanxe, vasru, gacri}

 ↑

boxfo
{bof bo'o }
sheet ; 'foil'
x1 is a sheet/foil/blanket {2-dimensional shape/form flexible in 3 dimensions}
of material x2 {cf. plita, cinje, polje, slasi, tinci}

 ↑

boxna
{bon bo'a }
wave
x1 is a wave {periodic pattern}
in medium x2, wave-form x3, wave-length x4, frequency x5 {cf. slilu, dikni, cinje, polje, morna, canre}

 ↑

bradi
{}
enemy ; 'adversary'
x1 is an enemy/opponent/adversary/foe of x2 in struggle x3 {cf. damba, jamna, darlu, pendo, fapro, gunta, sarji, jivna, jinga}

 ↑

bratu
{}
hail
x1 is hail/sleet/freezing rain/solid precipitation of material/composition including x2 {this is the substance, not the act or manner of its falling, which is carvi}; {cf. carvi, snime, bisli, tcima}

 ↑

brazo
{raz }
Brazilian
x1 reflects Brazilian culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. porto, ketco}

 ↑

bredi
{red bre }
ready
x1 is ready/prepared for x2 {event}

 ↑

{cf. spaji, jukpa}

 ↑

bridi
{bri }
predicate
x1 {text}
is a predicate relationship with relation x2 among arguments {sequence/set}
x3 {also: x3 are related by relation x2 {= terbri for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {x3 is a set completely specified}

 ↑

; {cf. sumti, fancu}

 ↑

brife
{bif bi'e }
breeze
x1 is a breeze/wind/gale from direction x2 with speed x3;
x1 blows from x2 {cf. tcima}

 ↑

briju
{bij }
office ; 'bureau'
x1 is an office/bureau/work-place of worker x2 at location x3 {cf. jibri, gunka}

 ↑

brito
{rit }
British
x1 reflects British/United Kingdom culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. glico, skoto, merko, ropno}

 ↑

broda
{rod }
predicate var 1
x1 is the 1st assignable variable predicate {cf. cmavo list bu'a}

 ↑

brode
{bo'e }
predicate var 2
x1 is the 2nd assignable variable predicate {cf. }

 ↑

brodi
{}
predicate var 3
x1 is the 3rd assignable variable predicate {cf. }

 ↑

brodo
{}
predicate var 4
x1 is the 4th assignable variable predicate {cf. }

 ↑

brodu
{}
predicate var 5
x1 is the 5th assignable variable predicate {cf. }

 ↑

bruna
{bun bu'a }
brother
x1 is brother of/fraternal to x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent{s}
x3; {not necess. biological} {cf. mensi, tunba, tamne, famti, bersa}

 ↑

bu
{bus bu'i }
word to lerfu convert any single word to BY {cf. cmavo list selma'o BY}

 ↑

bu'a
{bul }
some selbri 1 logically quantified predicate variable: some selbri 1 {cf. broda, etc.}

 ↑

budjo
{buj bu'o }
Buddhist
x1 pertains to the Buddhist culture/religion/ethos in aspect x2 {cf. latna, lijda}

 ↑

bukpu
{buk bu'u }
cloth
x1 is an amount of cloth/fabric of type/material x2 {cf. mapni, matli, sunla, slasi, silka}

 ↑

bumru
{bum }
fog
x1 is foggy/misty/covered by a fog/mist/vapor of liquid x2 {cf. djacu, carvi, danmo, lunsa, tcima, gapci}

 ↑

bunda
{bud }
pound
x1 is x2 {def. 1}
local weight unit{s}
{non-metric}, standard x3, subunits {e.g. ounces}
x4 {additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...}

 ↑

; {cf. grake, junta, tilju, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, kramu}

 ↑

bunre
{bur bu'e }
brown
x1 is brown/tan {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi}

 ↑

burcu
{bru }
brush
x1 is a brush for purpose x2 {event}
with bristles x3 {cf. komcu, pinsi}

 ↑

burna
{}
embarrassed
x1 is embarrassed/disconcerted/flustered/ill-at-ease about/under conditions x2 {abstraction}

 ↑

{cf. cinmo}

 ↑

 ↑

ca'a
{caz }
actually is modal aspect: actuality/ongoing event {cf. cabna, cmavo list ca}

 ↑

cabna
{cab }
now
x1 is current at/in the present of/during/concurrent/simultaneous with x2 in time {time relationship only, 'aorist' claiming simultaneity does not mean one event does not extend into the past or future of the other}
{cf. zvati, balvi, purci, cmavo list ca, cmavo list ca'a}

 ↑

cabra
{ca'a }
apparatus
x1 is apparatus/mechanism/device/equipment for function x2 controlled/{triggered}
by x3 {agent}

 ↑

{form determined by/from function; does not imply automated/automatic action - requires an external agent/trigger {a minji may be a zmiku cabra if it requires an external agent to trigger or control the functions that it performs automatically}

 ↑


{cf. tutci, minji, finti; girzu, ganzu for organizational apparatus, pilno}

 ↑

cacra
{}
hour
x1 is x2 hours in duration {default is 1 hour}
by standard x3 {cf. junla, mentu, snidu, tcika, temci}

 ↑

cadzu
{dzu }
walk
x1 walks/strides/paces on surface x2 using limbs x3 {cf. stapa, bajra, klama, litru}

 ↑

cafne
{caf }
often
x1 {event} often/ frequently/ commonly/ customarily occurs/recurs by standard x2 {cf. rirci, fadni, kampu, rapli, krefu, lakne, cmavo list piso'iroi and similar compounds}

 ↑

cakla
{}
chocolate
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of chocolate/cocoa {cf. ckafi}

 ↑

calku
{cak }
shell
x1 is a shell/husk {hard, protective covering}
around x2 composed of x3 {cf. pilka, skapi, gacri, bartu}

 ↑

canci
{}
vanish
x1 vanishes/disappears from location x2;
x1 ceases to be observed at x2 using senses/sensor x3 {also leaves, goes away {one sense}

 ↑

}; {cf. cliva, ganse, zgana, lebna, vimcu}

 ↑

cando
{cad }
idle
x1 is idle/at rest/inactive {"in motion", not implying a change in location, is negation of this}; {cf. surla}

 ↑

cange
{cag }
farm ; 'grange, agrarian'
x1 is a farm/ranch at x2, farmed by x3, raising/producing x4; {adjective:}

x1 is agrarian {also grange; farming is any organized agrarian activity, not limited to plant crops}; {cf. purdi, nurma, ferti, foldi, xarju}

 ↑

canja
{caj }
exchange
x1 exchanges/trades/barters commodity x2 for x3 with x4;
x1, x4 is a trader/merchant/businessma {also {adjective:}

x1, x2, x4 is/are commercial {better expressed as ka canja, kamcanja}

 ↑

}; x2/x3 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'ercanja for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

; {cf. dunda, friti, vecnu, zarci, jdini, pleji, jdima, jerna, kargu; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, banxa, cirko, dunda, janta, kargu, prali, sfasa, zivle}

 ↑

canko
{ca'o }
window
x1 is a window/portal/opening {portal}
in wall/building/structure x2 {cf. vorme, bitmu, ganlo, murta, pagre, kevna, jvinu, kalri, kuspe}

 ↑

canlu
{cal ca'u }
space ; 'volume'
x1 is space/volume/region/room {at-least-3-dimensional area}
occupied by x2 {also occupy {= selca'u}

 ↑

}
{cf. kensa, bliku, kumfa, kevna, kunti, tubnu, dekpu}

 ↑

canpa
{cna }
shovel
x1 is a shovel/spade {bladed digging implement}
for digging x2 {cf. kakpa, guska, tutci}

 ↑

canre
{can }
sand
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sand/grit from source x2 of composition including x3 {also abrasive {= gukcanre}

 ↑

}; {cf. bidju, rokci, zalvi, boxna}

 ↑

canti
{}
gut ; 'entrails'
x1 is a/the gut{s}

 ↑

/entrails/intestines/viscera/innards/digestive system {body-part}
of x2 {metaphor: process hub}; {cf. betfu}

 ↑

carce
{}
cart
x1 is a cart/carriage/wagon {wheeled vehicle}
for carrying x2, propelled by x3 {cf. karce, xislu, marce, matra}

 ↑

carmi
{cam cai }
intense
x1 is intense/bright/saturated/brilliant in property {ka}
x2 as received/measured by observer x {also lustrous, gleaming, sparkling, shining {all probably better metaphorically combined with gusni: gusycai or camgu'i}

 ↑

; in colors, refers principally to increased saturation {with opposite kandi}

 ↑

}; {cf. denmi, gusni, kandi, ruble, skari, tilju, tsali, mutce, blabi, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xekri, xunre, zirpu}

 ↑

carna
{car }
turn
x1 turns/rotates/revolves around axis x2 in direction x3 {also revolve {= jincarna}

 ↑

{cf. gunro, jendu}

 ↑

cartu
{cat }
chart
x1 is a chart/diagram/map of/about x2 showing formation/data-points x3 {cf. platu}

 ↑

carvi
{cav }
rain
x1 rains/showers/{precipitates}
to x2 from x3;
x1 is precipitation {not limited to 'rain'} {cf. bratu, dilnu, santa, snime, tcima, bisli, bumru}

 ↑

casnu
{snu }
discuss
x1{s}
{mass normally, but 1 individual/jo'u possible}
discuss{es}

 ↑

/talk{s}
about topic/subject x {also chat, converse}; {cf. bacru, cusku, darlu, tavla}

 ↑

catke
{ca'e }
shove
x1 {agent}
shoves/pushes x2 at locus x3 {move by pushing/shoving {= ca'ermu'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. danre for non-agentive force, lacpu}

 ↑

catlu
{cta }
look
x1 looks at/examines/views/inspects/regards/watches/gazes at x2 {also look through {= grecta, ravycta, bacycta}

 ↑

; note that English "look" often means a more generic "observe"}; {cf. jvinu, minra, simlu, viska, lanli, zgana, setca, viska}

 ↑

catni
{ca'i }
authority
x1 has authority/is an official in/on/over matter/sphere/persons x2 derived on basis x3 {cf. turni, tutra, krati, cmavo list ca'i, jaspu, pulji}

 ↑

catra
{}
kill ; 'slaughter'
x1 {agent}
kills/slaughters/murders x2 by action/method x3 {cf. morsi, xarci}

 ↑

caxno
{cax }
shallow
x1 is shallow in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4 {cf. condi, tordu, jarki, cinla, cmalu, jarki, jmifa}

 ↑

ce
{cec }
in a set with non-logical connective: set link, unordered; "and also", but forming a set {cf. cmima, cmavo list ce'o}

 ↑

ce'i
{cez }
percent digit/number: % percentage symbol, hundredths {cf. saclu, centi, parbi, frinu}

 ↑

ce'o
{ce'o }
in a sequence with non-logical connective: ordered sequence link; "and then", forming a sequence {cf. porsi, cmavo list ce}

 ↑

cecla
{cel ce'a }
launcher
x1 launches/fires/shoots projectile/missile x2, propelled by x3 {propellant/propulsion} {also:
x1 is a gun/launcher/cannon;
x1 hurls/throws/casts {more general than renro in that propulsion need not be internal to
x1}

 ↑

}; {cf. renro, danti, jakne, jbama, spoja}

 ↑

cecmu
{cem ce'u }
community
x1 is a community/colony of organisms x2 {cf. bende, kulnu, natmi, tcadu, jecta, girzu}

 ↑

cedra
{}
era
x1 is an era/epoch/age characterized by x2 {event/property/interval/idea}

 ↑

{x2 interval should be the defining boundaries; if merely a characterizing period, the nature of the interval should be expressed in an abstract bridi, or the interval should be marked with tu'a; x2 may also be characteristic object{s}
or practices of the era, if marked with tu'a}

 ↑

; {cf. ranji, temci, citsi}

 ↑

cenba
{cne }
vary
x1 varies/changes in property/quantity x2 {ka/ni}
in amount/degree x3 under conditions x4 {non-resultative, not-necessarily agentive change}; {cf. cenba which is non-resultative, galfi which is resultative and agentive, stika which is non-resultative and agentive; stodi, zasni, binxo}

 ↑

censa
{ces }
holy ; 'sacred'
x1 is holy/sacred to person/people/culture/religion/cult/group x2 {cf. cevni, krici, latna, pruxi, lijda, sinma}

 ↑

centi
{cen }
.01 ; metric 'centi'
x1 is a hundredth {1/100; 1
x10**-2}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

cerda
{ced }
heir
x1 is an heir to/is to inherit x2 {object/quality}
from x3 according to rule x4 {pedantically, inheriting an object should be a sumti-raising {tu'a if non-abstract in x2}
of inheriting loka ponse the object - the ownership of the object {= po'ercerda, po'erselcerda for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. jgina}

 ↑

cerni
{cer }
morning
x1 is a morning {dawn until after typical start-of-work for locale}
of day x2 at location x3 {this morning {= cabdeicerni}

 ↑

; tomorrow morning {= bavlamcerni}

 ↑

; yesterday morning {= prulamcerni, prulamdeicerni}

 ↑

}{cf. vanci, murse, tcika}

 ↑

certu
{cre }
expert
x1 is an expert/pro/has prowess in/is skilled at x2 {event/activity}
by standard x3 {also competent, skilled}; {cf. djuno, stati, kakne}

 ↑

cevni
{cev cei }
god ; 'divinity'
x1 is a/the god/deity of people{s}

 ↑

/religion x2 with dominion over x3 {sphere};
x1 is divine {also divinity}; {cf. censa, krici, lijda, malsi}

 ↑

cfari
{cfa }
initiate
x1 {state/event/process}
commences/initiates/starts/begins to occur; {intransitive verb}

 ↑

{cf. sisti, krasi, fanmo}

 ↑

cfika
{fik fi'a }
fiction
x1 is a work of fiction about plot/theme/subject x2/under convention x2 by author x3 {also story, lie, untrue}; {cf. cukta, lisri, prosa, fatci, jitfa, jetnu, xanri}

 ↑

cfila
{cfi }
flaw
x1 {property - ka}
is a flaw/fault/defect in x2 causing x3 {cf. cikre, srera, fenra, fliba, prane}

 ↑

cfine
{}
wedge
x1 is a wedge {shape/form/tool}
of material x2 {cf. tutci}

 ↑

cfipu
{fi'u }
confusing
x1 {event/state}
confuses/baffles x2 {observer}
due to {confusing}
property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. pluja, cfipu, zunti}

 ↑

ci
{cib }
3 digit/number: 3 {digit}

 ↑

ciblu
{blu }
blood
x1 is blood/vital fluid of organism x2 {cf. risna, flecu}

 ↑

cicna
{}
cyan
x1 is cyan/turquoise/greenish-blue {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, crino, blanu}

 ↑

cidja
{dja }
food ; 'feed'
x1 is food/feed/nutriment for x2;
x1 is edible/gives nutrition to x2 {cf. citka, nitcu, pinxe, xagji, cpina}

 ↑

cidni
{cid }
knee
x1 is a/the knee/elbow/knuckle {hinged joint, body-part}
of limb x2 of body x3 {metaphor: a sharp bend/curve}
{cf. }

 ↑

cidro
{dro }
hydrogen
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of hydrogen {H}

 ↑

; {metaphor: light, flammable} {cf. gapci, xukmi}

 ↑

cifnu
{cif }
infant
x1 is an infant/baby {helpless through youth/incomplete development}
of species x2 {also infantile}; {cf. makcu, verba}

 ↑

cigla
{cig }
gland
x1 is a/the gland {body-part}
secreting x2, of body x3; x2 is a secretion of
x1 {secretion {= selcigla}

 ↑

}; {cf. vikmi, xasne}

 ↑

cikna
{cik }
awake {adjective:}

x1 is awake/alert/conscious {cf. sanji, sipna, tatpi}

 ↑

cikre
{}
repair ; 'fix'
x1 repairs/mends/fixes x2 for use x3 {a repair may be incomplete, fixing only one of the possible uses of x2, hence x3}; {cf. cfila, spofu}

 ↑

ciksi
{cki }
explain
x1 {person}
explains x2 {event/state/property}
to x3 with explanation x4 {du'u}

 ↑

{explanation x4 is an underlying mechanism/details/purpose/method for x2 {= velcki for reordered places}

 ↑

, generally assumed to be non-obvious; metaphorical usage with the various causal relations {i.e. jalge, mukti, krinu, rinka, nibli, zukte}
is possible, but the non-obviousness, and the existence of an explainer with a point of view makes this word not a simple expression of cause}; {cf. cipra, danfu, jalge, jinvi, krinu, mukti, nabmi, preti, rinka, sidbo, zukte, tavla}

 ↑

cilce
{cic }
wild {adjective:}

x1 is wild/untamed {tame {= tolcilce}

 ↑

}; {cf. pinfu, panpi, tarti}

 ↑

cilmo
{cim }
moist
x1 is moist/wet/damp with liquid x2 {cf. litki, lunsa, sudga}

 ↑

cilre
{cli }
learn
x1 learns x2 {du'u}
about subject x3 from source x4 {obj./event}
by method x5 {event/process}

 ↑

{cf. ctuca, tadni, djuno, ckule}

 ↑

cilta
{cil }
thread ; 'filament'
x1 is a thread/filament/wire {shape/form}
of material x2 {cf. fenso, nivji, skori, silka}

 ↑

cimde
{}
dimension
x1 {property - ka}
is a dimension of space/object x2 according to rules/model x3 {cf. morna, ckilu, merli, manri}

 ↑

cimni
{}
infinite
x1 is infinite/unending/eternal in property/dimension x2, to degree x3 {quantity}

 ↑

/of type x3 {also everlasting, eternal {= cimnytei}

 ↑

}
{cf. , vitno}

 ↑

cinba
{}
kiss ; 'buss'
x1 {agent}
kisses/busses x2 at locus x3 {cf. ctebi}

 ↑

cindu
{}
oak
x1 is an oak, a type of tree of species/strain x2 {cf. tricu}

 ↑

cinfo
{}
lion
x1 is a lion/{lioness}
of species/breed x2 {cf. mlatu}

 ↑

cinje
{cij }
wrinkle
x1 is a wrinkle/crease/fold {shape/form}
in x2 {cf. korcu, polje, boxfo, boxna}

 ↑

cinki
{}
insect
x1 is an insect/arthropod of species x2; {bug/beetle} {cf. civla, danlu, jalra, jukni, manti, sfani, toldi, bifce}

 ↑

cinla
{}
thin ; 'lean'
x1 is thin in direction/dimension x2 by standard x3; {relatively short in smallest dimension} {cf. rotsu, jarki, tordu, cmalu, caxno, plana, jarki}

 ↑

cinmo
{cni }
emotion
x1 feels emotion x2 {ka}
about x3 {also mood/humor {= nuncni}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ci'o, cumla, jilra, nelci, xendo, ckeji, cortu, jgira, kecti, kufra, manci, prami, steba, zungi, badri, burna, gleki}

 ↑

cinri
{ci'i }
interesting ; 'interests'
x1 {abstraction}
interests/is interesting to x2; x2 is interested in
x1 {use
x1 tu'a for non-specific interest in an object; interested in {= selci'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. zdile, kucli, manci, kurji}

 ↑

cinse
{cin }
sexual
x1 in activity/state x2 exhibits sexuality/gender/sexual orientation x3 {ka}
by standard x4 {also:
x1 courts/flirts; x3 could be a ka{gender or role}, ka{attraction to a gender}, or ka{type of activity}, etc.; {adjective:}

x1 is sexual/sexy;
x1 is flirted with/courted by x2 {= cinfri}

 ↑

}; {cf. gletu, pinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi}

 ↑

cinta
{}
paint
x1 {material}
is a paint of pigment/active substance x2, in a base of x3 {cf. pixra, skari}

 ↑

cinza
{}
tongs
x1 is a/are tong{s}

 ↑

/chopsticks/pincers/tweezers/pliers {tool/body-part}
for x2 to pinch x3 {cf. tutci}

 ↑

cipni
{cpi }
bird
x1 is a bird/avian/fowl of species x2 {cf. datka, gunse, jipci, nalci, pimlu, vofli, xruki, danlu}

 ↑

cipra
{cip }
test ; 'proof'
x1 {process/event}
is a test for/proof of property/state x2 in subject x3 {individ./set/mass}

 ↑

{also examination, proxy measure, validation; {a set in x3 must be completely specified}

 ↑

}; {cf. ciksi, troci, jarco, pajni, saske}

 ↑

cirko
{cri }
lose
x1 loses person/thing x2 at/near x3;
x1 loses property/feature x2 in conditions/situation x3 {x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event {rare for cirko}

 ↑

, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'ecri, po'erselcri for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. facki, ralte, sisku, claxu, jinga, pleji, canja, sfasa, dapma, binra, mipri}

 ↑

cirla
{}
cheese
x1 is a quantity of/contains cheese/curd from source x2 {cf. ladru}

 ↑

ciska
{ci'a }
write ; 'scribe'
x1 inscribes/writes x2 on display/storage medium x3 with writing implement x4;
x1 is a scribe {also x3 writing surface}; {cf. papri, penbi, pinsi, tcidu, xatra, pixra, prina, finti for 'author' or specific authorial works, barna, pinka}

 ↑

cisma
{}
smile
x1 smiles/grins {facial expression}

 ↑

{smile/grin at something {= cismyfra}

 ↑

}; {cf. xajmi, cmila, frumu}

 ↑

ciste
{ci'e }
system
x1 {mass}
system interrelated by structure x2 among components x3 {set}
displaying x4 {ka}

 ↑

{
x1 {or x3}
is synergistic in x4; also network; x2 also relations, rules; x3 also elements {set completely specified}

 ↑

; x4 systemic functions/properties}
{cf. cmavo list ci'e, cmima, girzu, gunma, stura, tadji, munje, farvi, ganzu, judri, julne, klesi, morna, tcana}

 ↑

citka
{cti }
eat
x1 eats/ingests/consumes {transitive verb}
x2 {cf. cidja, pinxe, tunlo, xagji, xaksu, batci, gusta, kabri}

 ↑

citno
{cit ci'o }
young ; 'junior'
x1 is young/youthful {relatively short in elapsed duration}
by standard x2 {also age {= nilnalci'o}

 ↑

; {adjective:}

x1 is junior}; {cf. cnino, slabu, verba, slabu}

 ↑

citri
{cir }
history
x1 is a history of x2 according to x3 {person}

 ↑

/from point-of-view x3 {also historic/historical {= cirselmo'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. muzga}

 ↑

citsi
{}
season
x1 is a season/is seasonal {cyclical interval}, defined by interval/property x2, of year{s}
x3 {also anniversary {= citsydei, na'arcitsydei}

 ↑

, jubilee {= mumnoncitsi}

 ↑

; the period of time may be short or long as indicated by x2, and may occur every year or every nth year as indicated by x3 {default every year}

 ↑

; {x2 and/or x3 may need metaphorical restriction: djecitsi, pavdeicitsi; also equinox, solstice, time of year}; {cf. cedra, crisa, critu, dunra, ranji, temci, vensa, jbena}

 ↑

civla
{civ }
louse
x1 is a louse/flea {blood-sucking arthropod}
of species/breed x2, parasitic on x3 {cf. cinki, jalra}

 ↑

cizra
{ciz }
strange ; 'bizarre'
x1 is strange/weird/deviant/bizarre/odd to x2 in property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{also alien, mysterious, deviant, queer, unusual, exotic}; {cf. ranxi, rirci, fange, banli}

 ↑

ckabu
{}
rubber
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of rubber/latex from source x2 of composition including x3 {cf. pruni}

 ↑

ckafi
{kaf }
coffee
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of coffee from source/bean/grain x2 {brew based on a seed/bean/grain; e.g. also chicory coffee, decaf, postum}
{cf. tcati, brewed from a leaf, barja, cakla}

 ↑

ckaji
{kai }
quality
x1 has/is characterized by property/feature/trait/aspect/dimension x2 {ka}

 ↑

; x2 is manifest in x {manifested/property/quality/trait/feature/aspect {= selkai}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list kai, tcaci, tcini}

 ↑

ckana
{cka }
bed
x1 is a bed/pallet of material x2 for holding/supporting x3 {person/object/event}

 ↑

{cf. kamju, kicne, nilce, palta, cpana, vreta, jubme, stizu, matci, zbepi, palne, sarji}

 ↑

ckape
{cap }
peril
x1 is perilous/dangerous/potentially harmful to x2 under conditions x3 {cf. te bandu, te kajde, te marbi, se snura, se xalni}

 ↑

ckasu
{cas }
ridicule ; 'scoff'
x1 ridicules/mocks/scoffs at x2 about x3 {property/event}
by doing activity x4 {event}

 ↑

{cf. , cmila}

 ↑

ckeji
{kej cke }
ashamed
x1 feels ashamed/mortified/humiliated under conditions x2 before community/audience x3 {cf. cinmo}

 ↑

ckiku
{kik }
key
x1 is a key fitting/releasing/opening/unlocking lock x2, and having relevant properties x3 {also x2 fastener, mechanism; code key {= termifckiku, ckitermifra}

 ↑

; x3 is dependent on the type of key, but are those form properties of the key that enable it to serve the function of opening the lock - in the case of a metal key to a padlock, for example, this would be the shaft and teeth}; {cf. stela}

 ↑

ckilu
{ci'u }
scale
x1 {si'o}
is a scale of units for measuring/observing/determining x2 {state}

 ↑

{cf. cmavo list ci'u, gradu, merli, cimde, manri}

 ↑

ckini
{ki'i }
related ; 'akin, kin'
x1 is related to/associated with/akin to x2 by relationship x3 {cf. cmavo list ki'i, ponse, srana, steci, mapti, sarxe, fange}

 ↑

ckire
{kir }
grateful
x1 is grateful/thankful to/appreciative of x2 for x3 {event/property}

 ↑

{also gratitude {= nunckire or kamckire}

 ↑

}
{cf. }

 ↑

ckule
{kul cu'e }
school
x1 is school/institute/academy at x2 teaching subject{s}
x3 to audien./commun. x4 operated by x {also college, university}; {cf. cilre, ctuca, tadni}

 ↑

ckunu
{ku'u }
conifer ; 'cone'
x1 is a conifer/pine/fir of species/strain x2 with cones x3 {cf. tricu}

 ↑

cladu
{lau }
loud
x1 is loud/noisy at observation point x2 by standard x3 {cf. savru}

 ↑

clani
{cla }
long
x1 is long in dimension/direction x2 {default longest dimens.}
by meas. stand. x3 {cf. slabu, condi, ganra, rotsu, tordu, barda, ganra, gutci, minli, rotsu}

 ↑

claxu
{cau }
without ; 'lack'
x1 is without/lacking/free of/lacks x2;
x1 is x2-less {cf. cmavo list cau, cirko, kunti, nitcu, pindi, banzu}

 ↑

clika
{}
mossy
x1 is a moss/lichen of species/strain x2 growing on x3 {cf. mledi}

 ↑

clira
{lir }
early
x1 {event}
is early by standard x2 {cf. lerci}

 ↑

clite
{lit }
polite
x1 is polite/courteous/civil in matter x2 according to standard/custom x3 {also formal, ritual}; {cf. ritli}

 ↑

cliva
{liv li'a }
leave
x1 leaves/goes away/departs/parts/separates from x2 via route x3 {also:
x1 leaves behind/takes leave of x2}; {cf. litru. canci, vimcu, lebna, litru, muvdu}

 ↑

clupa
{cup }
loop
x1 is a loop/circuit of x2 {material} {also noose {= skoclupa, saljgeclupa; there is no indication of shape, but merely that the ends join/meet}

 ↑

; closed curve defined by set of points {= cuptai}

 ↑

}; {cf. djine}

 ↑

cmaci
{}
mathematics
x1 is a mathematics of type/describing x2 {cf. mekso}

 ↑

cmalu
{cma }
small
x1 is small in property/dimension{s}
x2 {ka}
as compared with standard/norm x3 {cf. caxno, cinla, jarki, tordu, barda}

 ↑

cmana
{ma'a }
mountain
x1 is a mountain/hill/mound/{rise}/{peak}/{summit}/{highlands}
projecting from land/mass x2 {cf. punli, derxi}

 ↑

cmavo
{ma'o }
structure word
x1 is a structure word of grammatical class x2, with meaning/function x3 in language x4 {cmavo list, if physical object {= {loi}
ma'oste}

 ↑

; referring to the mental construct {e.g. propose adding a new cmavo to the cmavo list = ma'orpoi, ma'orselcmi,ma'orselste}

 ↑

}; {cf. gismu, lujvo, gerna, smuni, valsi}

 ↑

cmene
{cme me'e }
name
x1 {quoted word{s}

 ↑

}
is a/the name/title/tag of x2 to/used-by namer/name-user x3 {person}

 ↑

{also: x2 is called
x1 by x3 {= selme'e for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list me'e, gismu, tcita, valsi, judri}

 ↑

cmila
{mi'a }
laugh ; 'smile'
x1 laughs {emotional expression}

 ↑

{
x1 laughs at x2 {= mi'afra}

 ↑

}; {cf. ckasu, frumu, xajmi, cisma}

 ↑

cmima
{mim cmi }
member
x1 is a member/element of set x2;
x1 belongs to group x2;
x1 is amid/among/amongst group x2 {
x1 may be a complete or incomplete list of members; x2 is normally marked by la'i/le'i/lo'i, defining the set in terms of its common property{ies}

 ↑

, though it may be a complete enumeration of the membership}; {cf. ciste, porsi, jbini, girzu, gunma, klesi, cmavo list mei, kampu, lanzu, liste}

 ↑

cmoni
{cmo co'i }
moan
x1 utters moan/groan/howl/scream {non-linguistic utterance}
x2 expressing x3 {property}

 ↑

{also shriek, most animal sounds, e.g. bark, cackle, meow, neigh, moo, honk, baa, crow}
{cf. }

 ↑

cnano
{na'o }
norm
x1 {value}
is a norm/average in property/amount x2 {ka/ni}
among x3{s}
{set}
by standard x4 {also mean, normal, usual; {x3 specifies the complete set}

 ↑

}; {cf. tcaci, fadni, kampu, lakne, tarti, rirci}

 ↑

cnebo
{neb ne'o }
neck
x1 is a/the neck {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: a relatively narrow point} {cf. galxe, cutne}

 ↑

cnemu
{nem ne'u }
reward
x1 {agent}
rewards x2 {recipient}
for atypical x3 {event/property}
with reward/desserts x4 {differs from earned payment because of atypical nature; rewards need not be positive but are in some sense deserved from the point of view of the rewarder: positive reward {= zanyne'u}

 ↑

, punishment, penalty, demerit {= malne'u, sfane'u}

 ↑

; x4 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= posne'u, po'ervelne'u for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. dunda, friti, jerna, jinga, jivna, pleji, sfasa, venfu, prali, dapma}

 ↑

cnici
{nic }
orderly ; 'neat'
x1 is orderly/neat/ordered in property/quantity x2 {ka/ni}

 ↑

{cf. cunso, kalsa}

 ↑

cnino
{nin ni'o }
new
x1 is new/unfamiliar/novel to observer x2 in feature x3 {ka}
by standard x4;
x1 is a novelty {cf. nuzba, slabu, citno, se djuno}

 ↑

cnisa
{nis }
lead
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of lead {Pb}

 ↑

; {metaphor: heavy, malleable, soft metal} {cf. jinme, tinci}

 ↑

cnita
{nit ni'a }
beneath
x1 is directly/vertically beneath/below/under/underneath/down from x2 in frame of reference x3 {also underside, nether}; {cf. dizlo, gapru, galtu, farna, loldi}

 ↑

co
{col }
tanru inversion tanru inversion operator; "... of type ..."; allows modifier trailing sumti without sumti links co'a
{co'a }
initiative interval event contour: at the starting point of ...; initiative {beginning {= co'a{r}

 ↑

-}

 ↑

}; {cf. cfari, krasi, clira}

 ↑

co'e
{com co'e }
unspecif bridi elliptical/unspecified bridi relationship co'u
{co'u }
cessative interval event contour: at the ending point of ... even if not done; cessative {ending {= co'u{r}

 ↑

-}

 ↑

}; {cf. sisti, fanmo}

 ↑

cokcu
{cko }
soak up
x1 soaks up/absorbs/sucks up x2 from x3 into x4;
x1 is an absorbant {cf. panje, sakci, lacpu}

 ↑

condi
{con cno coi }
deep
x1 is deep in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4 {cf. clani, caxno, bargu, ganra, rotsu, barda, gutci, minli}

 ↑

cortu
{cor cro }
pain ; 'hurt'
x1 hurts/feels pain/hurt at locus x2 {cf. cinmo, xrani}

 ↑

cpacu
{cpa }
get ; 'acquire'
x1 gets/procures/acquires/obtains/accepts x2 from source x3 {previous possessor not implied} {also fetch; accept a gift {= du'acpa}

 ↑

}; {cf. punji, lebna, vimcu}

 ↑

cpana
{}
upon
x1 is upon/atop/resting on/lying on {the upper surface of}
x2 in frame of reference/gravity x3 {
x1 may be object or event}

 ↑

; {cf. se vasru, jbini, zvati, nenri, vreta, ckana, diklo, jibni, lamji, zutse, punji for lay upon, sarji, zbepi}

 ↑

cpare
{par }
climb
x1 climbs/clambers/creeps/crawls on surface x2 in direction x3 using x4 {limbs/tools} {cf. klama, litru, bajra, farlu, plipe}

 ↑

cpedu
{cpe }
request
x1 requests/asks/petitions/solicits for x2 of/from x3 in manner/form x4 {also demand {= mi'ecpe}

 ↑

}; {cf. pikci, te preti, te frati, se spuda, danfu}

 ↑

cpina
{}
pungent
x1 is pungent/piquant/peppery/spicy to sense x2 {also prickly {= pe'urcpina}

 ↑

}; {cf. vrusi, kukte, cidja, panci, sumne}

 ↑

cradi
{}
radio
x1 broadcasts/transmits {using radio waves}
x2 via station/frequency x3 to {radio}
receiver x4 {cf. tivni, benji, tcana}

 ↑

crane
{cra }
front
x1 is anterior/ahead/forward/{in/on}
the front of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3 {also: x3 is the standard of orientation for x2}
{cf. sefta, flira, trixe, mlana, pritu, zunle}

 ↑

creka
{cek }
shirt
x1 is a shirt/blouse/top {upper-body garment - not necessarily sleeved or buttoned}, material x {cf. taxfu}

 ↑

crepu
{rep }
harvest ; 'reap'
x1 {agent}
harvests/reaps/gathers crop/product/objects x2 from source/area x3 {cf. critu, sombo, jmaji}

 ↑

cribe
{rib }
bear
x1 is a bear/ursoid of species/breed x2 {cf. }

 ↑

crida
{rid }
fairy
x1 is a fairy/elf/gnome/brownie/pixie/goblin/kobold {mythical humanoid}
of mythos/religion x2 {also orc, giant, demon or devil {when humanoid-form is presumed by the mythos/religion}

 ↑

, bugbear, bogeyman}; {cf. ranmi, especially for non-humanoid creatures of myth, lijda}

 ↑

crino
{ri'o }
green
x1 is green/verdant {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, cicna}

 ↑

cripu
{rip }
bridge
x1 is a bridge/span over/across x2 between x3 and x4 {unordered, typically destination first} {cf. bargu, kruca, ragve, kuspe}

 ↑

crisa
{cis }
summer
x1 is summer/summertime {hot season}
of year x2 at location x3 {cf. citsi, critu, dunra, vensa}

 ↑

critu
{}
autumn
x1 is autumn/fall {harvest/cooling season}
of year x2 at location x3 {cf. citsi, crisa, dunra, vensa, crepu}

 ↑

ctaru
{}
tide
x1 is a tide {cyclical/periodical expansion}
in x2 caused by x3 {cf. xamsi}

 ↑

ctebi
{teb }
lip ; 'labial'
x1 is a/the lip {body-part}/rim of orifice x2 of body x3; {adjective:}

x1 is labial {cf. moklu, korbi, cinba}

 ↑

cteki
{tek ce'i }
tax
x1 is a tax/levy/duty on goods/services/event x2 levied against x3 by authority/collector x4 {also custom, toll, tariff, tribute}
{cf. }

 ↑

ctile
{}
petroleum ; 'oil'
x1 is a quantity of petroleum/oil from source x2 {cf. grasu}

 ↑

ctino
{ti'o }
shadow ; 'shade'
x1 is a shadow/the shade of object x2, made by light/energy source x3 {cf. manku, gusni}

 ↑

ctuca
{ctu }
teach
x1 teaches audience x2 ideas/methods/lore x3 {du'u}
about subject{s}
x4 by method x5 {event}

 ↑

{also instruct, instructor, educate, educator, teacher, professor, pedagogue; {adjective:}

x1/x5 is pedagogical}; {cf. ckule, cilre, tadni}

 ↑

cukla
{cuk }
round ; 'circular'
x1 is round/circular {2-dimensional shape/form};
x1 is a disk/circle/ring {normally used for a filled-in circle/disk, but emphasis on roundness means that the concept may include 'ring'}; {cf. djine, ranji, bolci, tarmi}

 ↑

cukta
{cku }
book
x1 is a book about subject/theme/story x2 by author x3 for audience x4 preserved in medium x5 {this is a quantity of text, and not the physical object {= selpapri}

 ↑

; x2 may be a convention rather than a subject}; {cf. cfika, prina, prosa, tcidu, papri}

 ↑

culno
{clu }
full
x1 is full/completely filled with x2 {cf. tisna, kunti, mulno, setca, tisna}

 ↑

cumki
{cum cu'i }
possible ; 'maybe'
x1 {event/state/property}
is possible under conditions x2;
x1 may/might occur;
x1 is a maybe {also possibility}; {cf. lakne, cumki}

 ↑

cumla
{cul }
humble ; 'humility'
x1 is humble/modest about x2 {abstraction}

 ↑

;
x1 displays humility about x2 {cf. cinmo, jgira}

 ↑

cunmi
{}
millet
x1 is a quantity of millet {grain}
of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

cunso
{cun cu'o }
random ; 'chance'
x1 is random/fortuitous/unpredictable under conditions x2, with probability distribution x3 {also accidental, chancy, by chance, adventitious, arbitrary {also = cuncu'a, cunselcu'a, cunjdi, cunseljdi; based on "unpredictable"}

 ↑

}; {cf. cnici, lakne, funca, kalsa, snuti}

 ↑

cuntu
{cu'u }
affair
x1 is an affair/organized activity involving person{s}
x2 {ind./mass}

 ↑


x1 is x2's business {also matter, concern; x2 is engaged in
x1 {which is usually an abstraction}
{= selcu'u for reordered places}

 ↑

}
{cf. }

 ↑

cupra
{pra }
produce
x1 produces x2 {product}
by process x3 {cf. zbasu, farvi, gundi, jukpa}

 ↑

curmi
{cru }
let ; 'permit'
x1 {agent}
lets/permits/allows x2 {event}
under conditions x3;
x1 grants privilege x2 {sufficient condition {= tcinycru}

 ↑

}; {cf. rinju, banzu, ralte, jimte, jaspu, zifre}

 ↑

curnu
{cur }
worm
x1 is a worm/invertebrate animal of species/breed x2 {also mollusk, snail {= cakcurnu}

 ↑

, shellfish {= xaskemcakcurnu, xaskemcakydja}

 ↑

; the generalization to invertebrate is because almost all multicellular invertebrates are indeed wormlike}; {cf. since, silka}

 ↑

curve
{cuv }
pure
x1 is pure/unadulterated/unmitigated/simple in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

{
x1 is simply/purely/unmitigatedly/solely x2 {= cuvykai}

 ↑

}; {cf. prane, jinsa, manfo, sampu, sepli, traji, lumci, xukmi}

 ↑

cusku
{cus sku }
express
x1 {agent}
expresses/says x2 {sedu'u/text/lu'e concept}
for audience x3 via expressive medium x {also says}; {cf. bacru, tavla, casnu, spuda, cmavo list cu'u, bangu, dapma, jufra, pinka}

 ↑

cutci
{cuc }
shoe
x1 is a shoe/boot/sandal for covering/protecting {feet/hooves}
x2, and of material x3 {also boot {= tupcutci}

 ↑

}; {cf. smoka, taxfu, skiji}

 ↑

cutne
{cut }
chest
x1 is a/the chest/thorax/upper trunk/{rib cage/breast}
{body-part}
of x2 {cf. cnebo, betfu, xadni, tanxe}

 ↑

cuxna
{cux cu'a }
choose
x1 chooses/selects x2 {choice}
from set/sequence of alternatives x3 {complete set}

 ↑

{also prefer {= nelcu'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. jdice, pajni, nelci}

 ↑

 ↑

da
{dav dza }
something 1 logically quantified existential pro-sumti: there exists something 1 {usually restricted}

 ↑

da'a
{daz }
all except digit/number: all except n; all but n; {default 1}

 ↑

dacru
{dac }
drawer
x1 is a drawer/file in structure x2, a {sliding compartment}
container for contents x3 {cf. nilce, tanxe}

 ↑

dacti
{dai }
object ; 'thing'
x1 is a material object enduring in space-time;
x1 is a thing {cf. marji, xanri}

 ↑

dadjo
{daj }
Taoist
x1 pertains to the Taoist culture/ethos/religion in aspect x2 {cf. lijda, jegvo}

 ↑

dakfu
{dak }
knife
x1 is a knife {tool}
for cutting x2, with blade of material x3 {cf. denci, balre, katna, tunta, forca, smuci, kinli}

 ↑

dakli
{}
sack
x1 is a sack/bag with contents x2, and of material x3 {cf. daski for pouch, bakfu}

 ↑

damba
{dab da'a }
fight ; 'combat'
x1 fights/combats/struggles with x2 over issue x3 {abstract}

 ↑

;
x1 is a fighter/combatant {use x3 tu'a for fight over an object/objective}; {cf. bradi, gunta, talsa, darlu, fapro, jamna, sonci}

 ↑

damri
{}
drum
x1 is a drum/cymbal/gong {percussion musical instrument}
with beater/actuator x2 {cf. rilti, zgike}

 ↑

dandu
{dad }
hang ; 'dangle, suspend'
x1 hangs/dangles/is suspended from x2 by/at/with joint x3 {pendant {= dadja'i}

 ↑

; also dependent {original meaning}

 ↑

}
{cf. }

 ↑

danfu
{daf }
answer
x1 is the answer/response/solution/{reply}
to question/problem x2 {cf. ciksi, frati, preti, nabmi, spuda for agentive response/reply, cpedu}

 ↑

danlu
{dal da'u }
animal
x1 is an animal/creature of species x2;
x1 is biologically animate {cf. banfi, cinki, cipni, finpe, jukni, respa, since, mabru, bakni}

 ↑

danmo
{dam }
smoke
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of smoke/smog/air pollution from source x2 {x2 may be a fire}; {cf. pulce, gapci, sigja, bumru}

 ↑

danre
{da'e }
pressure
x1 {force}
puts pressure on/presses/applies force to x2 {agentive press/depress {= da'ergau, da'erzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. catke, bapli, prina, tinsa}

 ↑

dansu
{}
dance
x1 {individual, mass}
dances to accompaniment/music/rhythm x2 {cf. bende, zgike, zajba}

 ↑

danti
{dan }
projectile
x1 is a ballistic projectile {e.g. bullet/missile}
for firing by {gun/propelling launcher}
x2 {also cannonball, catapult stone, shot pellet{s}

 ↑

}; {cf. cecla, renro, jakne}

 ↑

daplu
{plu }
island
x1 is an island/atoll/key of {material/properties}
x2 in surroundings/body x3;
x1 is insular {cf. lalxu, rirxe, xamsi, dirgo}

 ↑

dapma
{dap }
curse ; 'damn'
x1 curses/damns/condemns x2 to fate {event}
x3 {curse with a specific expression {= dapsku}

 ↑

}; {cf. mabla, dimna, cnemu, sfasa, dunda, cusku, cirko, jdima}

 ↑

dargu
{dag }
road
x1 is a road/highway to x2 from x3 with route x4 {x2/x3 may be unordered}

 ↑

{a regularly used, improved-for-use surface for travelling}; {cf. naxle, tcana, pluta, klaji}

 ↑

darlu
{dau }
argue
x1 argues for stand x2 against stand x3; {an opponent is not necessary} {cf. fapro, jamna, sarji, talsa, sumti, tugni, casnu, damba, bradi, tavla}

 ↑

darno
{dar da'o }
far
x1 is far/distant from x2 in property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. jibni}

 ↑

darsi
{}
audacity ; 'dare'
x1 shows audacity/chutzpah in behavior x2 {event/activity}

 ↑

;
x1 dares to do/be x2 {event/ka}

 ↑

{
x1 is bold}; {cf. virnu}

 ↑

darxi
{dax da'i }
hit
x1 hits/strikes/{beats}
x2 with instrument {or body-part}
x3 at locus x4 {cf. bikla, gunta, jenca, tunta, tikpa, janli, jgari, pencu}

 ↑

daski
{}
pocket
x1 is a pocket/pouch of/in garment/item x2 {cf. dakli, taxfu, bakfu}

 ↑

dasni
{das }
wear
x1 wears/is robed/garbed in x2 as a garment of type x3 {x2 need not be intended for use as a garment {unlike taxfu}

 ↑

}; {cf. taxfu}

 ↑

daspo
{spo }
destroy ; 'despoil'
x1 {event}
destroys/ruins/wrecks/despoils x2;
x1 is destructive {cf. spofu, xrani, marxa, zalvi, xaksu}

 ↑

dasri
{sri }
ribbon
x1 is a ribbon/tape/strip/band/stripe of material x2 {cf. , djine}

 ↑

datka
{}
duck
x1 is a duck/{drake}
of species/breed x2 {cf. cipni}

 ↑

datni
{}
data
x1 {du'u}
{fact/measurement}
is data/information/statistic{s}
about x2 gathered by method x3 {evidence {= velji'i datni or just velji'i, ti'irdatni}

 ↑

}
{cf. , fatci, saske, vreji}

 ↑

decti
{dec }
.1 ; metric 'deci'
x1 is a tenth {1/10; 1
x10**-1}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

degji
{deg }
finger ; 'digit'
x1 is a/the finger/digit/toe {body-part}
on limb/body site x2 of body x3; {metaphor: peninsula} {finger {= xandegji}

 ↑

, toe {= jmadegji}

 ↑

}; {cf. nazbi, tamji, tance, xance}

 ↑

, dejni
{dej }
owe ; 'debt-or'
x1 owes x2 in debt/obligation to creditor x3 in return for x4 {service, loan};
x1 is a debtor {cf. jbera, janta, zivle}

 ↑

dekpu
{}
gallon ; 'peck'
x1 is x2 {defaults 1}
local volume unit{s}
{non-metric; e.g. bushel}, standard x3, x4 subunits {gallon {= likydekpu}

 ↑

, quart {= likterdekpu}

 ↑

, barrel {wet = likybradekpu, dry = sudbradekpu}

 ↑

, bushel {= sudydekpu}

 ↑

, peck {= sudyterdekpu}

 ↑

, cupful {= kabrydekpu}

 ↑

, tablespoon {= mucydekpu}

 ↑

; teaspoon {= mucterdekpu}

 ↑

; {all of these lujvo may need gic- to distinguish the English measurement system in contrasting with some local system; the English system is otherwise presumed to be the default non-metric system}

 ↑

}; {additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...}

 ↑

; {cf. canlu, litce, rupnu, fepni, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu}

 ↑

dekto
{dek }
10 ; metric 'deka'
x1 is ten {10; 1*10**1}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

delno
{del de'o }
candela ; 'candle-power'
x1 is x2 candela {metric}
in luminosity {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. , centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

dembi
{deb }
bean
x1 is a bean/pea/leguminous seed from plant {legume}
x2 {cf. grute, sobde, tsiju}

 ↑

denci
{den de'i }
tooth ; 'dental'
x1 is a/the tooth {body-part}
of x2 {for metaphor: see dakfu, pagre, jgalu}

 ↑

; {cf. moklu, dakfu, pagre, jgalu, batci, bongu}

 ↑

denmi
{dem }
dense
x1 is dense/concentrated/packed/intense in property x2 {ka}
at location/locus x3 {cf. carmi, midju, viknu}

 ↑

denpa
{dep de'a }
wait ; 'pause'
x1 awaits/waits/pauses for/until x2 at state x3 before starting/continuing x4 {activity/process {{x2 is an event, usually a point event}

 ↑

; also: resuming x4}; {cf. dicra, fanmo, sisti, fliba, pandi}

 ↑

dertu
{der de'u }
dirt
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of dirt/soil/earth/ground from source x2 of composition x3 {also:
x1 is earthen; x3: composition including x3, which need not be exhaustive of composition}; {cf. kliti, terdi, loldi}

 ↑

derxi
{dre }
heap
x1 is a heap/pile/stack/mound/hill of materials x2 at location x3 {cf. cmana}

 ↑

desku
{des }
shake
x1 shakes/quakes/trembles/quivers/shudders/wobbles/vibrates from force x2 {also {expressible either with desku or slilu}

 ↑

: side to side, to and fro, back and forth, reciprocal motion}; {cf. slilu, janbe}

 ↑

detri
{det }
date
x1 is the date {day,{week},{month},year}
of event/state x2, at location x3, by calendar x4 {time units in
x1 are specified as numbers separated by pi'e or are unit values massified with joi}

 ↑

; {cf. cmavo list de'i, djedi, jeftu, masti, nanca, tcika}

 ↑

dicra
{dir }
interrupt ; 'disturb, disrupt'
x1 {event}
interrupts/stops/halts/{disrupts}
x2 {object/event/process}
due to quality x3 {also disturbs {one sense}

 ↑

}; {cf. zunti, fanza, raktu, denpa}

 ↑

dikca
{dic }
electric ; 'charge'
x1 is electricity {electric charge or current}
in/on x2 of polarity/quantity x3 {def. negative}

 ↑

{{x3, a quantifier, can be expressed as a simple polarity using the numerals for positive and negative ma'u and ni'u}

 ↑

; {explicitly}
negative {= dutydikca}

 ↑

, positive {= mardikca}

 ↑

; current {= {sel}

 ↑

muvdikca; again default negative/electron current}

 ↑

}; {cf. lindi, xampo, flecu, maksi, tcana}

 ↑

diklo
{klo }
local
x1 is local to x2;
x1 is confined to locus x2 within range x3 {indicates a specific location/value within a range; e.g. a hits b. What is the locality on b that a hits?}; {cf. cmavo list di'o, jibni, zvati, cpana, nenri, lamji, stuzi, tcila}

 ↑

dikni
{dik }
regular ; 'cyclical'
x1 is regular/cyclical/periodic in property {ka}

 ↑

/activity x2 with period/interval x3 {also uniform; resonant {= dikslicai}

 ↑

}; {cf. slilu, rilti, xutla, manfo, boxna}

 ↑

dilcu
{}
quotient ; 'division'
x1 is a quotient of 'x2/x3' {dividend x2 divided by divisor x3}, leaving remainder x4 {cf. frinu, fendi, katna, parbi, mekso}

 ↑

dilnu
{dil }
cloud
x1 is a cloud of material x2 in air mass x3 at floor/base elevation x4 {cf. carvi, tcima}

 ↑

dimna
{dim }
fate ; 'doom'
x1 is a fate/destiny of x2; {doom, curse are mabla-forms}; x2 is fated/predestined/doomed to
x1 {fated/destined/doomed {= seldimna}

 ↑

}; {cf. dapma}

 ↑

dinju
{dij di'u }
building
x1 is a building/edifice for purpose x2 {cf. ginka, zdani, zarci}

 ↑

dinko
{di'o }
nail
x1 is a nail/tack {pointed driven/frictional fastener}
of type/size x2 {ka}

 ↑

, made of material x {cf. pijne, lasna}

 ↑

dirba
{dib }
dear
x1 is dear/precious/darling to x2;
x1 is emotionally valued by x2 {
x1 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event {rare for cirko}

 ↑

, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erdirba for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. tcika, kargu, vamji, vajni, pleji, jadni, jemna}

 ↑

dirce
{di'e }
radiate
x1 radiates/emits x2 under conditions x3 {cf. gusni}

 ↑

dirgo
{dig }
drop
x1 is a drop {small, cohesive shape}
of material {liquid/vapor}
x2 in surrounding material x3 {cf. daplu, bidju}

 ↑

dizlo
{diz dzi }
low
x1 is low/down/downward in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3 {also lower; x3 is generally some defined distance above a zero point/baseline, or is that baseline itself}; {cf. cnita, galtu, gapru, farna, loldi}

 ↑

djacu
{jac jau }
water ; 'aqua-'
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of water; {adjective:}

x1 is aqueous/{aquatic} {aquatic {= jaupli}

 ↑

}; {cf. lalxu, rirxe, xamsi, limna, litki, lumci, bumru, jinto}

 ↑

djedi
{dje dei }
full day
x1 is x2 full days in duration {default is 1 day}
by standard x3; {adjective:}

x1 is diurnal {today {= cabdei}

 ↑

; tomorrow {= bavlamdei}

 ↑

; yesterday {= prulamdei}

 ↑

}; {cf. donri, detri, jeftu, masti, nanca, nicte, tcika}

 ↑

djica
{dji }
desire
x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 {event/state}
for purpose x3 {if desire is for an object, use tu'a in x2}; {cf. taske, xagji, mukti, nitcu, nelci, pacna, prami, rigni, trina, xebni, xlura}

 ↑

djine
{jin }
ring
x1 is a ring/annulus/torus/circle {shape/form}
of material x2, inside diam. x3, outside diam. x {also ellipse, oval {= jincla}

 ↑

; {usage has been for near-circles, such as tight spirals, even if not closed loops}

 ↑

}; {also band, belt, encircle {= jinsru}

 ↑

}; {cf. clupa, cukla, dasri, karli, sovda, sruri, konju}

 ↑

djuno
{jun ju'o }
know
x1 knows fact{s}
x2 {du'u}
about subject x3 by epistemology x4 {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place; know how to - implying knowledge of method but not necessarily having the ability to practice {= tadjyju'o}

 ↑

}
{cf. know/familiar with: se slabu, na'e cnino, na'e fange; cmavo list du'o, cilre, certu, facki, jijnu, jimpe, senpi, smadi, kakne, birti, mipri, morji, saske, viska}

 ↑

do
{don doi }
you pro-sumti: you listener{s}

 ↑

; identified by vocative donri
{dor do'i }
daytime
x1 is the daytime of day x2 at location x3; {adjective:}

x1 is diurnal {vs. nocturnal}

 ↑

{cf. nicte, djedi, tcika}

 ↑

dotco
{dot do'o }
German ; 'Deutsch'
x1 reflects German/Germanic culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

draci
{}
drama
x1 is a drama/play about x2 {plot/theme/subject}
by dramatist x3 for audience x4 with actors x5 {x2 may also be a convention}
{cf. }

 ↑

drani
{dra }
correct ; 'right'
x1 is correct/proper/right/perfect in property/aspect x2 {ka}
in situation x3 by standard x4 {cf. srera, mapti}

 ↑

drata
{dat }
other
x1 isn't the-same-thing-as/is different-from/other-than x2 by standard x3;
x1 is something else {cf. mintu, frica}

 ↑

drudi
{rud dru }
roof
x1 is a roof/top/ceiling/lid of x2 {cf. bitmu, stedu, galtu, gapru, loldi, marbi, gacri, mapku; a drudi is {designed to be}
over/above something and shelters it from other things above the drudi, mapku}

 ↑

du
{dub du'o }
same identity as identity selbri; = sign;
x1 identically equals x2, x3, etc.; attached sumti refer to same thing {It is very un-Lojbanic to translate the generic English copula 'is' by this word}; {cf. mintu}

 ↑

du'u
{dum }
bridi abstract abstractor: predication/bridi abstractor;
x1 is predication {bridi}
expressed in sentence x2 {cf. mintu, dunli}

 ↑

dugri
{dug }
logarithm
x1 is the logarithm of x2 with base x3 {cf. tenfa}

 ↑

dukse
{dus du'e }
excess
x1 is an excess of/too much of x2 by standard x3 {cloying {= maldu'e, tolpu'adu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. bancu, banzu, ricfu, zmadu}

 ↑

dukti
{dut }
opposite ; 'contrary'
x1 is polar opposite from/contrary to x2 in property/on scale x3 {property/si'o}

 ↑

{cf. ranxi, ragve, fatne}

 ↑

dunda
{dud du'a }
give ; 'donate'
x1 {donor}
gives/donates gift/present x2 to recipient/beneficiary x3 {without payment/exchange} {also grants; x3 is a receiver {= terdu'a for reordered places}

 ↑

; the Lojban doesn't distinguish between or imply possession transfer or sharing; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erdu'a, po'erseldu'a for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. benji, muvdu, canja, pleji, vecnu, friti, sfasa, dapma, cnemu, prali}

 ↑

dunja
{duj }
freeze ; 'jell'
x1 freezes/jells/solidifies at temperature x2 and pressure x3 {cf. febvi, lunsa, runme, sligu}

 ↑

dunku
{duk du'u }
anguish
x1 is anguished/distressed/emotionally wrought/stressed by x2 {cf. fengu, surla}

 ↑

dunli
{dun du'i }
equal
x1 is equal/congruent to/as much as x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3 {same in quantity/quality {not necessarily in identity}

 ↑

; 'analogy' may be expressed as the equivalence of two properties of similarity {ka
x1 simsa x2}
and {ka x3 simsa x4}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list du'i, satci, frica, simsa, mintu}

 ↑

dunra
{dur }
winter
x1 is winter/wintertime {cold season}
of year x2 at location x3 {cf. citsi, crisa, critu, vensa}

 ↑

dzena
{dze }
elder
x1 is an elder/ancestor of x2 by bond/tie/degree x3;
x1's generation precedes x2's parents {cf. patfu, rirni, tamne}

 ↑

dzipo
{zip zi'o }
Antarctican
x1 reflects Antarctican culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

 ↑

facki
{fak fa'i }
discover ; 'find'
x1 discovers/finds out x2 {du'u}
about subject/object x3;
x1 finds {fi}
x3 {object}

 ↑

{cf. cirko, djuno, jijnu, smadi, sisku}

 ↑

fadni
{fad }
ordinary
x1 {member}
is ordinary/common/typical/usual in property x2 {ka}
among members of x3 {set}

 ↑

{also: x2 is a normal/common/ordinary/typical property among set x3 {= selterfadni for reordered places}

 ↑

; also regular, {mabla forms:}
banal, trite, vulgar; {x3 is complete set}

 ↑

}; {cf. cafne, rirci, kampu, lakne, tcaci, cnano}

 ↑

fagri
{fag }
fire
x1 is a fire/flame in fuel x2 burning-in/reacting-with oxidizer x3 {default air/oxygen}

 ↑

{cf. jelca, sacki}

 ↑

falnu
{fan }
sail
x1 is a sail for gathering propelling material x2 on vehicle/motor x3 {waterwheel {= jacfanxi'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. bloti}

 ↑

famti
{}
aunt or uncle
x1 is an aunt/uncle of x2 by bond/tie x3;
x1 is an associated member of x2's parent's generatio {cf. bruna, mamta, mensi, patfu, rirni, tamne}

 ↑

fancu
{}
function
x1 is a function/single-valued mapping from domain x2 to range x3 defined by expression/rule x4 {cf. mekso, bridi}

 ↑

fange
{}
alien ; 'foreign'
x1 is alien/foreign/{exotic}/unfamiliar to x2 in property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. cizra, jbena, ckini}

 ↑

fanmo
{fam fa'o }
end ; 'final'
x1 is an end/finish/termination of thing/process x2; {not necessarily implying completeness} {
x1 is final/last/at the last;
x1 is a terminal/terminus of x2;
x1 is the final/terminated state of terminated process x2; x2 terminates/ceases/stops/halts at
x1 {= selfa'o for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. krasi, cfari, mulno, sisti, denpa, jipno, kojna, traji, krasi}

 ↑

fanri
{}
factory ; 'foundry'
x1 is a factory/foundry/industrial plant/mill producing x2 from materials x3 {cf. molki, gundi}

 ↑

fanta
{}
prevent
x1 prevents/keeps/stops/restrains/constrains event x2 from occurring {cf. pinfu, bandu, zunti, rinju, jimte, bapli, rivbi}

 ↑

fanva
{}
translate
x1 translates text/utterance x2 to language x3 from language x4 with translation result x5 {cf. }

 ↑

fanza
{faz }
annoy
x1 {event}
annoys/irritates/bothers/distracts x2 {also: is disruptive to}; {cf. fengu, raktu, dicra, tunta, zunti, jicla}

 ↑

fapro
{fap pro }
oppose
x1 opposes/balances/contends against opponent{s}
x2 {person/force ind./mass}
about x3 {abstract {also resists}; {cf. bandu, bradi, darlu, damba, jivna, lanxe, rivbi, sarji, xarnu}

 ↑

farlu
{fal fa'u }
fall
x1 falls/drops to x2 from x3 in gravity well/frame of reference x4 {note: things can fall in spin, thrust, or tide as well as gravity; {agentive "drop" = one of two lujvo: falcru and falri'a}

 ↑

}
{cf. lafti, cpare, klama, sfubu}

 ↑

farna
{far fa'a }
direction
x1 is the direction of x2 {object/event}
from origin/in frame of reference x3 {x2 is towards
x1 from x3 {= selfa'a for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. zunle, pritu, galtu, gapru, cnita, dizlo, berti, snanu, stuna, stici, purci, balvi, lidne}

 ↑

farvi
{fav }
develop ; 'evolve'
x1 develops/evolves towards/into x2 from x3 through stages x4 {cf. pruce, banro, makcu, ciste, cupra, ferti}

 ↑

fasnu
{fau }
event ; 'happen'
x1 {event}
is an event that happens/occurs/takes place;
x1 is an incident/happening/occurrence {cf. cmavo list fau, krefu, lifri, fatci, rapli; gasnu, zukte, if specifically agentive, banli}

 ↑

fatci
{fac }
fact
x1 {du'u}
is a fact/reality/truth/actuality, in the absolute {cf. datni, jitfa, sucta, xanri, jetnu, fasnu, zasti, cfika, saske}

 ↑

fatne
{fat fa'e }
reverse
x1 {sequence}
is in reverse order from x2 {sequence};
x1 {object}
is inverted from x2 {object}

 ↑

{also opposite {one sense}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list fa'e, dukti}

 ↑

fatri
{fai }
distribute
x1 is distributed/allotted/allocated/shared among x2 with shares/portions x3; {x2/x3 fa'u}

 ↑

{also spread, shared out, apportioned; agentive distribution {= fairgau, fairzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list fa'u, fendi, preja, katna, tcana}

 ↑

febvi
{feb }
boil
x1 boils/evaporates at temperature x2 and pressure x3 {roil {= febjicla}

 ↑

}; {cf. dunja, lunsa, runme}

 ↑

femti
{fem }
1E-15 ; metric 'femto'
x1 is 1
x10**-15 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

fendi
{fed }
divide
x1 {agent}
divides/partitions/separates x2 into sections/parts/ind. x3 by method/partition x4 {also segments}; {cf. sepli, bitmu, fatri, dilcu, katna, frinu}

 ↑

fengu
{feg fe'u }
angry
x1 is angry/mad at x2 for x3 {action/state/property}

 ↑

{cf. fanza, dunku}

 ↑

fenki
{fek }
crazy ; 'frenzy'
x1 {action/event}
is crazy/insane/mad/frantic/in a frenzy {one sense}
by standard x2 {cf. bebna, racli, xajmi}

 ↑

fenra
{fer fe'a }
crack
x1 is a crack/fissure/pass/cleft/ravine/chasm/{defect/flaw}
{shape/form}
in x2 {cf. kevna, cfila, jinto}

 ↑

fenso
{fen fe'o }
sew
x1 sews/stitches/sutures materials x2 {ind./set}
together with tool{s}
x3, using filament x4 {x2 if a set must be a complete specification}

 ↑

; {cf. cilta, jivbu, jorne, nivji, pijne, lasna}

 ↑

fepni
{fep fei }
cent ; 'penny'
x1 is measured in kopeck/cent money-subunits as x2 {quantity}, in monetary system x3 {also pfennig, paisa, sen, fen, dinar, etc.;
x1 is generally a price/cost/value}; {additional secondary, tertiary, etc. subunit places may be added as x4, x5, x6, ...}

 ↑

; {cf. sicni, jdini, jdima, vecnu, rupnu, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu}

 ↑

fepri
{}
lung ; 'pulmonary'
x1 is a/the lung {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: breathing/respiratory apparatus/bellows} {also {adjective:}

x1 is pulmonary}; {cf. pambe, vasxu}

 ↑

ferti
{fre }
fertile
x1 is fertile/conducive for supporting the growth/development of x2;
x1 is fruitful/prolific {also fecund {note that the Lojban covers both potential and actual/realized fertility}

 ↑

}; {cf. vanbi, sidju, rorci, farvi, banro, cange}

 ↑

festi
{fes }
waste
x1{s}
is/are waste product{s}
{left to waste}
by x2 {event/activity}

 ↑

{also shit, crap; agentive wasting {= fesygau, fesyzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. xaksu, kalci, pinca}

 ↑

fetsi
{fet fe'i }
female ; 'fem-'
x1 is a female/doe of species x2 evidencing feminine trait{s}
x3 {ka}

 ↑

;
x1 is feminine {cf. nakni}

 ↑

figre
{fig }
fig
x1 is a fig {fruit/tree}
of species/strain x2 {cf. grute}

 ↑

filso
{fis }
Palestinian ; 'Philistine'
x1 reflects Palestinian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. jordo, xebro}

 ↑

finpe
{fip fi'e }
fish ; 'fin'
x1 is a fish of species x2 {metaphorical extension to sharks, non-fish aquatic vertebrates} {cf. danlu}

 ↑

finti
{fin fi'i }
invent
x1 invents/creates/composes/authors x2 for function/purpose x3 from existing elements/ideas x4 {
x1 is creative/inventive}; {cf. cmavo list fi'e, ciska, pemci, zbasu, larcu, specific works of authorship, prosa, skina}

 ↑

flalu
{fla }
law
x1 is a law specifying x2 {state/event}
for community x3 under conditions x4 by lawgiver{s}
x5 {
x1 is a legality; x2 is legal/licit/legalized/a legality {= selfla for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. javni, ritli, zekri, pulji, tinbe}

 ↑

flani
{}
flute
x1 is a flute/pipe/fife/recorder {flute-like/air-reed musical instrument} {cf. zgike}

 ↑

flecu
{fle }
flow ; 'flush'
x1 is a current/flow/river of/in x2 flowing in direction to/toward x3 from direction/source x4 {
x1 is a stream of x2; x2 is a fluid {gas or liquid}
{= selfle for reordered places}

 ↑

;
x1 flushes toward x3; flush {= camfle, sukfle}

 ↑

}; {cf. rirxe, senta where no directionality is implied, rinci, xampo, dikca, sakci, gapci, litki, ciblu}

 ↑

fliba
{fli }
fail ; 'baffle'
x1 fails at doing x2 {state/event}

 ↑

;
x1 is a failure at its role in x2 {baffled {= penfli, jmifli, dafspufli, menfli, among other senses}

 ↑

; also x2 ceases/does not complete/fails to continue due to failure on the part of
x1}; {cf. cfila, snada, srera, troci, sisti, ranji, denpa, bebna, zunti}

 ↑

flira
{fir }
face
x1 is a/the face {head/body-part}
of x2; {adjective:}

x1 is facial {cf. sefta, stedu, crane, mebri}

 ↑

fo'a
{fo'a }
it-6 pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #6 {specified by goi}

 ↑

fo'e
{fo'e }
it-7 pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #7 {specified by goi}

 ↑

fo'i
{fo'i }
it-8 pro-sumti: he/she/it/they #8 {specified by goi}

 ↑

foldi
{flo foi }
field
x1 is a field {shape/form}
of material x2;
x1 is a broad uniform expanse of x2 {also woods {= ricfoi}

 ↑

, lawn/meadow {= sasfoi}

 ↑

, brush {= spafoi, cicyspafoi}

 ↑

}; {cf. purdi, cange}

 ↑

fonmo
{fom fo'o }
foam
x1 is a quantity of foam/froth/suds of material x2, with bubbles/vacuoles of material x3 {cf. zbabu}

 ↑

fonxa
{fon }
telephone
x1 is a telephone transceiver/modem attached to system/network x2 {cf. , tcana}

 ↑

forca
{fro }
fork
x1 is a fork/fork-type tool/utensil for purpose x2 with tines/prongs x3 on base/support x4 {cf. dakfu, smuci, komcu, tutci}

 ↑

fraso
{fas }
French ; 'France'
x1 reflects French/Gallic culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

frati
{fra }
react
x1 reacts/responds/answers with action x2 to stimulus x3 under conditions x4;
x1 is responsive {x3 stimulates
x1 into reaction x2, x3 stimulates reaction x2 {= terfra for place reordering}

 ↑

; attempt to stimulate, prod {= terfratoi, tunterfratoi}

 ↑

}; {cf. preti, danfu, spuda, cpedu, tarti}

 ↑

fraxu
{fax }
forgive
x1 forgives x2 for event/state/activity x3 {cf. }

 ↑

frica
{fic }
differ
x1 differs/is distinct from/contrasts with/is unlike x2 in property/dimension/quantity x3 {also other-than {less common meaning}

 ↑

}; {cf. ranxi, drata, dunli, simsa, vrici}

 ↑

friko
{fi'o }
African
x1 reflects African culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

frili
{fil }
easy ; 'freely'
x1 {action}
is easy/simple/facile for x2 {agent}
under conditions x3; x2 does
x1 freely/easily {cf. nandu, sampu, zifre}

 ↑

frinu
{}
fraction
x1 is a fraction, with numerator x2, denominator x3 {x2/x3}

 ↑

{cf. parbi, dilcu, mekso, fendi}

 ↑

friti
{fit }
offer
x1 offers/proffers x2 {offering}
to x3 with conditions x4 {{x4 may be nu canja, nu pleji, etc.; an unconditional offering has the 'condition' of acceptance}

 ↑

; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erfriti, po'erselfriti for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. canja, dunda, rinsa, vecnu, jdima, cnemu, pleji, vitke}

 ↑

frumu
{fru }
frown
x1 frowns/grimaces {facial expression}

 ↑

{
x1 frowns/grimaces at/in reaction to x2 {= frufra}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmila, cisma}

 ↑

fukpi
{fuk fu'i }
copy
x1 is a copy/replica/duplicate/clone of x2 in form/media x3 made by method x4 {event}

 ↑

{cf. krefu, rapli, gidva}

 ↑

fulta
{ful flu }
float
x1 {passive}
floats on/in fluid {gas/liquid}
x2;
x1 is buoyant {cf. limna, bloti, sakli}

 ↑

funca
{fun fu'a }
luck ; 'fortune'
x1 {event/property}
is determined by the luck/fortune of x2; {note mabla/zabna not implied}

 ↑

{cf. cunso, mabla, zabna}

 ↑

fusra
{fur }
rotten ; 'rot'
x1 rots/decays/ferments with decay/fermentation agent x2;
x1 is rotten/decayed/fermented {cf. birje, vanju, vifne}

 ↑

fuzme
{fuz fu'e }
responsible
x1 is responsible/accountable for x2 {action/resulting state}
to judge/authority x3 {cf. bilga}

 ↑

 ↑

gacri
{gai }
cover
x1 is a cover/{lid/top}
for covering/concealing/sheltering x2 {cf. pilka, gapru, marbi, drudi, ve botpi, bitmu, calku}

 ↑

gadri
{gad }
article
x1 is an article/descriptor labelling description x2 {text}
in language x3 with semantics x4 {x2 is the noun phrase/sumti without the article/descriptor; description {{
x1 with x2}
= gadysu'i}

 ↑

; note: 'determiner' has become the accepted general linguistics term, displacing 'article'; however, 'determiner' includes all words that can introduce a noun phrase/sumti, whether a description or not, such as pronoun possessives like lemi, quantifiers {especially in indefinites}
like ci and su'o, and demonstratives like ti, ta, and tu; the term 'descriptor' in Lojban, is limited to words that introduce descriptions {excluding indefinites}

 ↑

, such as those of selma'o LA and LE, their common compounds such as lemi, and possibly lenu}; 'article' typically refers only to a single word; Lojban assumes the broader meaning}
{cf. }

 ↑

galfi
{gaf ga'i }
modify ; 'alter'
x1 {event}
modifies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x2 into x3 {agentive, resultative change}; {cf. stika for non-resultative, binxo for not-necessarily agentive change, cenba for non-resultative change; zasni}

 ↑

galtu
{gal ga'u }
high
x1 is high/up/upward in frame of reference x2 as compared with baseline/standard height x3 {also upper; x3 is generally some defined distance above a zero point/baseline, or is that baseline itself}; {cf. gapru, dizlo, cnita, drudi, farna}

 ↑

galxe
{}
throat ; 'gullet'
x1 is a/the throat/gullet {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: narrow{ing}
opening of a deep hole} {cf. cnebo, kevna, tunlo}

 ↑

ganlo
{ga'o }
closed
x1 {portal/passage/entrance-way}
is closed/shut/not open, preventing passage/access to x2 by x3 {as a doorway, but also perhaps a semi-permeable membrane}; {cf. kalri, pagre, canko, vorme, zunti}

 ↑

ganra
{gan }
broad
x1 is broad/wide in dimension x2 {2nd most significant dimension}
by standard x3 {cf. clani, jarki, rotsu, condi, barda, gutci, minli}

 ↑

ganse
{gas ga'e }
sense
x1 {observer}
senses/detects/notices stimulus property x2 {ka}
by means x3 under conditions x4 {
x1 is sensitive to x2; also feels, spots, perceives, makes out, discerns/recognizes {but only implying reaction without necessarily any significant mental processing}

 ↑

; note that the emphasis is on a property which stimulates
x1 and is detected {sanji is passive about the sensing, and is not limited to sensory input, as well as presuming some kind of discernment/recognition, while not being concerned with the means of detection}

 ↑

; x3 sense/sensory channel}; {cf. pencu, sanji, viska, sumne, tirna, zgana, canci, simlu}

 ↑

ganti
{}
gonad ; 'testes'
x1 is a/the testes/ovary/testicle/scrotum/balls/gonad/stamen/pistil {body-part}
of x2, gender x {egg/sperm/pollen/gamete producing/bearing organ}; {cf. plibu, sovda, pinji, gutra, mabla}

 ↑

ganxo
{gax }
anus ; 'asshole/arsehole'
x1 is a/the anus/anal orifice/asshole/arsehole {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: exit, waste exit} {also asshole/ass/arsehole; {adjective:}

x1 is anal}; {cf. zargu, kalci, mabla, rinci}

 ↑

ganzu
{gaz }
organize
x1 organizes x2 {relative chaos}
into x3 {ordered/organized result}
by system/principle{s}
x4 {x3 is also a system; x4 could be merely a function which inherently serves to dictate the organizational structure of x3}; {cf. ciste, morna, stura, bilni, cabra}

 ↑

gapci
{gac }
gas
x1 is gaseous/fumes/a gas/vapor of material/composition including x2, under conditions x3 {x3 includes temperature and pressure}; {cf. pambe, vacri, litki, sligu, danmo, bumru, cidro, flecu}

 ↑

gapru
{gap }
above ; 'up'
x1 is directly/vertically above/upwards-from x2 in gravity/frame of reference x3 {cf. tsani, galtu, cnita, drudi, gacri, dizlo, farna}

 ↑

garna
{gar }
rail ; 'bar'
x1 is a rail/railing/bar {tool}
supporting/restraining x2, of material x3 {cf. kamju, grana, tutci}

 ↑

gasnu
{gau }
do
x1 {person/agent}
is an agentive cause of event x2;
x1 does/brings about x2 {cf. cmavo list gau, gunka, zukte, rinka, fasnu for non-agentive events, jibri, kakne, pilno}

 ↑

gasta
{gat }
steel
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains steel of composition including x2 {cf. jinme, molki, tirse}

 ↑

genja
{gej }
root
x1 is a root {body-part}
of plant/species x2; {metaphor: immobile, supporting, nourishing} {cf. jamfu, jicmu, patlu, samcu, spati, krasi}

 ↑

gento
{get ge'o }
Argentinian
x1 reflects Argentinian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xispo, ketco, spano}

 ↑

genxu
{gex }
hook
x1 is a hook/crook {shape/form}
of material x2 {cf. kruvi, korcu}

 ↑

gerku
{ger ge'u }
dog
x1 is a dog/canine/{bitch}
of species/breed x2 {cf. lorxu, labno, mlatu}

 ↑

gerna
{gen ge'a }
grammar
x1 is the grammar/rules/defining form of language x2 for structure/text x3 {cf. bangu, stura, cmavo, jufra}

 ↑

gidva
{gid gi'a }
guide
x1 {person/object/event}
guides/conducts/pilots/leads x2 {active participants}
in/at x3 {event}

 ↑

{a guiding person advises/suggests/sets an example to be followed, but does not necessarily control/direct/manage actual execution of an event; an event may serve as a guide by setting a pattern/example to be emulated}; {cf. jitro, ralju, sazri, te bende, jatna, fukpi, morna}

 ↑

gigdo
{gig gi'o }
1E9 ; metric 'giga'
x1 is a billion {British milliard}
{1
x10**9}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

ginka
{gik }
camp
x1 is a camp/encampment/temporary residence of x2 at location x3 {cf. dinju, xabju, zdani}

 ↑

girzu
{gir gri }
group
x1 is group/cluster/team showing common property {ka}
x2 due to set x3 linked by relations x4 {also collection, team, comprised of, comprising; members x3 {a specification of the complete membership}
comprise group
x1; cluster {= kangri}

 ↑

}; {cf. bende, ciste, cmima, gunma, panra, cabra, cecmu, kansa, klesi, lanzu, liste, vrici}

 ↑

gismu
{gim gi'u }
root word
x1 is a {Lojban}
root word expressing relation x2 among argument roles x3, with affix{es}
x4 {gismu list, if physical object {= {loi}
gi'uste}

 ↑

; referring to the mental construct {e.g. propose adding a new gismu to the gismu list = gimpoi, gimselcmi, gimselste}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo, cmene, lujvo, smuni, sumti, tanru, valsi}

 ↑

glare
{gla }
hot ; 'warm'
x1 is hot/{warm}
by standard x2 {warm {= mligla}

 ↑

, feverish {= xadgla}

 ↑

}; {cf. lenku}

 ↑

gleki
{gek gei }
happy ; 'gay'
x1 is happy/gay/merry/glad/gleeful about x2 {event/state}

 ↑

{adversity {= kamnalgei}

 ↑

}; {cf. badri, cinmo}

 ↑

gletu
{let gle }
copulate ; 'coitus'
x1 copulates/fucks/mates/has coitus/sexual intercourse with x2 {
x1 and x2 are symmetrical; mounts {= cpanygle}

 ↑

}; {cf. cinse, pinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi, mabla, speni}

 ↑

glico
{gic gli }
English
x1 is English/pertains to English-speaking culture in aspect x2 {generally assume broadest sense of 'English'; may refer to 'English', pertaining to the country/people/culture of England {normally requiring constraint = gligu'e, or simply redundancy}

 ↑

; British English, the norm language of the UK {= gliglibau}

 ↑

}; {cf. brito which refers to the United Kingdom as a whole or to the British empire, merko, sralo, kadno, skoto}

 ↑

gluta
{glu }
glove
x1 is a mitten/glove {hand and lower arm garment}
of material x2 {mitten {= degycauglu}

 ↑

}; {cf. taxfu}

 ↑

gocti
{goc }
1E-24 ; 'yocto'
x1 is 1
x10**-24 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

gotro
{got }
1E24 ; 'yotta'
x1 is 1
x10**24 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

gradu
{rau }
unit ; 'degree, grad'
x1 {magnitude}
is a unit/degree of/on scale/reference standard x2 {si'o}
measuring property x3 {also grade, level, point; x3 dimension}; {cf. ckilu, kantu, kelvo, merli, ranti, selci}

 ↑

grake
{gra }
gram
x1 is x2 gram{s}
{metric}
in mass {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. junta, kilto, bunda, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, litce, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

grana
{ga'a }
rod
x1 is a rod/pole/staff/stick/cane {shape/form}
of material x2 {cf. garna}

 ↑

grasu
{ras }
grease
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains grease/fat/oil from source x2 {cf. ctile, matne, plana}

 ↑

greku
{rek }
frame
x1 is a frame/structure/skeleton/outline supporting/load-bearing/determining the form of x2 {cf. korbi, stura, tsina, bongu}

 ↑

grusi
{rus }
gray
x1 is gray {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi}

 ↑

grute
{rut }
fruit
x1 is a fruit {body-part}
of species x2 {cf. badna, dembi, figre, guzme, narge, perli, pilka, plise, spati, stagi, tamca, tsiju, tarbi, panzi, rorci, te pruce, jbari, nimre}

 ↑

gubni
{gub }
public
x1 is public/un-hidden/open/jointly available to/owned by all among community x2 {mass}

 ↑

{cf. sivni}

 ↑

gugde
{gug gu'e }
country
x1 is the country of peoples x2 with land/territory x3; {people/territory relationship}

 ↑

{also sovereignty, domestic {as opposed to foreign}

 ↑

, nation {when not referring to ethos}

 ↑

}; {cf. turni, natmi, jecta, tumla, tutra, lanci}

 ↑

gundi
{gud }
industry
x1 is industry/industrial/systematic manufacturing activity producing x2 by process/means x3 {cf. cupra, fanri, rutni, zbasu}

 ↑

gunka
{gun gu'a }
work
x1 {person}
labors/works on/at x2 {activity}
with goal/objective x3 {also:
x1 is a worker/laborer}; {cf. sazri, gasnu, se jibri; zukte - which need not be labor; physics term 'work' = ni majmu'u, briju, jibri, lazni, selfu}

 ↑

gunma
{gum }
jointly ; 'mass'
x1 is a mass/team/aggregate/whole, together composed of components x2, considered jointly {A description in
x1 indicates of mass property{ies}
displayed by the mass; masses may reveal properties not found in the individual set members that are massified, which themselves are not necessarily relevant to the mass property implicit in this bridi}; {cf. bende, girzu, pagbu, cmavo list loi, lei, lai, ciste, cmima, kansa, tinci}

 ↑

gunro
{gur gu'o }
roll ; 'trundle'
x1 rolls/trundles on/against surface x2 rotating on axis/axle x3;
x1 is a roller {cf. bolci, carna, jendu, slanu}

 ↑

gunse
{}
goose
x1 is a goose/{gander}
of species/breed x2 {cf. cipni}

 ↑

gunta
{gut }
attack
x1 {person/mass}
attacks/invades/commits aggression upon victim x2 with goal/objective x3 {cf. bradi, damba, darxi, jamna, jenca, jursa}

 ↑

gurni
{gru }
grain
x1 is grain/{British: corn}/cereal from plant/species x2 {cf. bavmi, cunmi, mavji, maxri, molki, mraji, rismi, sobde, spati, zumri, nanba, sorgu}

 ↑

guska
{guk }
scrape
x1 blade/scraper/erosive scrapes/erodes/abrades x2 from x3 {abrade, abrasive {= mosyguska}

 ↑

}; {cf. balre, sraku, batci, canpa, mosra}

 ↑

gusni
{gus gu'i }
illumine ; 'light'
x1 {energy}
is light/illumination illuminating x2 from light source x3 {x3 illuminates/lights x2 with light/illumination
x1; x2 is lit/illuminated by illumination
x1 from source x3 {= selgu'i for reordered places}

 ↑

; light/lamp {= tergu'i}

 ↑

}{cf. dirce, manku, solri, carmi, ctino, kantu}

 ↑

gusta
{}
restaurant
x1 is a restaurant/cafe/diner serving type-of-food x2 to audience x3 {cf. barja, citka, kukte, sanmi, xotli}

 ↑

gutci
{guc }
cubit ; 'foot'
x1 is x2 {defaults 1}
short local distance unit{s}
{non-metric}, standard x3, x4 subunits {foot {= jmagutci}

 ↑

; yard {= cibjamgutci}

 ↑

, pace {= tapygutci}

 ↑

, inch {= degygutci}

 ↑

, cubit {= birgutci}

 ↑

}; {additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...}

 ↑

; {cf. mitre, clani, ganra, condi, rotsu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, minli, merli, bunda, kramu}

 ↑

gutra
{}
womb ; 'uterus'
x1 is a/the womb/uterus {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: nourishing, protective, giving birth} {cf. jbena, rorci, sovda, tarbi, ganti, mabla}

 ↑

guzme
{guz zme }
melon
x1 is a melon/squash {fruit/plant}
of species/strain x2 {cf. grute}

 ↑

 ↑

ja
{jav }
tanru or logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought or jabre
{}
brake
x1 brakes/causes to slow motion/activity x2 with device/mechanism/principle x3 {cf. mosra}

 ↑

jadni
{jad ja'i }
adorn
x1 {object}
adorns/decorates x2;
x1 is an adornment/decoration of x2; x2 is fancy/decorated {fancy/decorated {= selja'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. jemna, dirba, batke}

 ↑

jakne
{}
rocket
x1 is a rocket {vehicle}
propelled by jet expelling x2 carrying payload x3 {cf. cecla, danti, spoja}

 ↑

jalge
{jag ja'e }
result
x1 {action/event/state}
is a result/outcome/conclusion of antecedent x2 {event/state/process}

 ↑

{also: x2 gives rise to
x1 {= selja'e for reordered places}

 ↑

; total {general meaning, but also = me'orja'e, pi'irja'e, sujyja'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. se mukti, te zukte, se rinka, se krinu, se nibli, mulno, sumji, pilji, mekso, cmavo list ja'e, ciksi}

 ↑

jalna
{}
starch
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of starch from source x2 of composition including x3 {cf. patlu, samcu}

 ↑

jalra
{}
cockroach
x1 is a cockroach/{orthopteran/termite}
of order/species/breed x2 {also grasshopper {= pi'erjalra}

 ↑

; cricket: {= sanjalra}

 ↑

; locust, termite: mantyjalra or mudyctijalra}; {while cockroaches are an order unto themselves, they are part of Orthoptera, which includes grasshoppers, crickets, etc; termites are a closely-related non-Orthoptera, more akin to cockroaches than to e.g. ants}

 ↑

; {cf. cinki, civla, manti}

 ↑

jamfu
{jaf jma }
foot
x1 is a/the foot {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: lowest portion}
{adjective:}

x1 is pedal {cf. jicmu, genja, zbepi, tuple, jubme, xance, tamji}

 ↑

jamna
{jam }
war
x1 {person/mass}
wars against x2 over territory/matter x3;
x1 is at war with x2 {cf. bradi, gunta, panpi, damba, darlu}

 ↑

janbe
{jab }
bell
x1 is a bell/chime/{tuning fork}
{tuned percussion instrument}
producing sound/note x2 {also:
x1 rings/tolls {i.e. if it rings, then it is a bell}

 ↑

; resonates {one sense, = jabdesku}

 ↑

}; {cf. zgike, tonga, desku, slilu}

 ↑

janco
{jan }
shoulder
x1 is a/the shoulder/hip/joint {body-part}
attaching limb/extremity x2 to body x3 {cf. birka}

 ↑

janli
{jal }
collide
x1 collides with/crashes/bumps/runs into x2 {also collide = simjanli for a collision between two moving objects}

 ↑

; {cf. darxi}

 ↑

jansu
{jas }
diplomat ; 'consul'
x1 is a diplomat/consul representing polity x2 in/at negotiation x3 for function/purpose x4 {{for}
x3 polity, {use tu'a}

 ↑

; also ambassador {= raljansu, trujansu}

 ↑

}; {cf. jecta, krati}

 ↑

janta
{jat }
account
x1 is an account/bill/invoice for goods/services x2, billed to x3 by x4 {check/cheque {= le'irjanta}

 ↑

}; {cf. jdima, vamji, vecnu, canja, jerna, dejni, jbera}

 ↑

jarbu
{}
suburb
x1 is a suburban area of city/metropolis x2 {cf. nurma, se tcadu, ve tcadu}

 ↑

jarco
{ja'o }
show
x1 {agent}
shows/exhibits/displays/{reveals}/demonstrates x2 {property}
to audience x3 {reveal {= mipyja'o, sivja'o}

 ↑

; also:
x1 shows that x2,
x1 shows off x2; showing an object is generally expressed with a tu'a x2, since the properties of the shown object {other than its presence}
intended for observation are seldom specified {simple presence could be expressed by leka {object}
cu zvati}

 ↑

}; {cf. tigni, cipra, zgana, jvinu, lanli, mipri, simlu}

 ↑

jarki
{jak }
narrow
x1 is narrow in dimension x2 {2nd most significant dimension}
by standard x3 {cf. caxno, cinla, tordu, tagji, cinla, cmalu}

 ↑

jaspu
{jap }
passport
x1 is a passport issued to x2 {person}
by authority x3 allowing x4 {activity}

 ↑

{cf. pikta, catni, curmi}

 ↑

jatna
{ja'a }
captain
x1 is captain/commander/leader/in-charge of vehicle/domain x2 {cf. jitro, lidne, te bende, minde, ralju, gidva, bloti}

 ↑

javni
{jva }
rule
x1 is a rule prescribing/mandating/requiring x2 {event/state}
within system/community x3 {regulation, prescription {also x2}

 ↑

, principle, requirement {also x2}

 ↑

, prescribe, require {conditions are usually contained within x2}

 ↑

;
x1 is regulatory; x2, x3 are regulated}; {cf. flalu, ritli, cmavo list ja'i, marde, tcaci, tinbe, zekri}

 ↑

jbama
{bam }
bomb
x1 is a bomb/explosive device with explosive material/principle x2 {cf. cecla, spoja}

 ↑

jbari
{jba }
berry
x1 is a berry {fruit/plant}
of plant/species x2 {cf. grute, tsiju, narge, grute}

 ↑

jbena
{jbe }
born ; 'bear'
x1 is born to x2 at time x3 {birthday}
and place x4 {birthplace};
x1 is native to {fo}
x4 {x2 bears/gives birth to
x1}; {cf. fange, gutra, rorci, mamta, salci, citsi}

 ↑

jbera
{jer }
borrow
x1 {agent}
borrows/temporarily takes/assumes x2 {object}
from source x3 for interval x4 {credit {= jernu'e}

 ↑

; borrow/assume a property or quality as a chameleon does {= zaskai, zasysmitra, zasysmitai}

 ↑

}; {cf. dejni, janta, zivle}

 ↑

jbini
{bin bi'i }
between
x1 is between/among set of points/bounds/limits x2 {set}

 ↑

/amidst mass x2 in property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{x2 {a complete set, generally ordered}
defines the bounds/limits/range for
x1}; {cf. se vasru, nenri, zvati, cpana, snuji, senta, bitmu, jimte, kuspe, jibni, lamji, sruri, vanbi, midju, cmima, setca}

 ↑

jdari
{jar }
firm ; 'hard'
x1 is firm/hard/resistant/unyielding to force x2 under conditions x3 {cf. nandu, ralci, randa, ranti, tinsa, sligu, stodi}

 ↑

jdice
{jdi }
decide
x1 {person}
decides/makes decision x2 {du'u}
about matter x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. pajni, cuxna, kanji, manri}

 ↑

jdika
{}
decrease
x1 {experiencer}
decreases/contracts/is reduced/diminished in property/quantity x2 by amount x3 {cf. zenba, mleca, vimcu}

 ↑

jdima
{di'a }
price
x1 {amount}
is the price of x2 to purchaser/consumer x3 set by vendor x4 {x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erdi'a, po'erseldi'a for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

; price is something decided/set by the seller, and is closely akin to offer {friti}

 ↑

, which is what a buyer may decide; {note that price !={not equal}
cost/expense, which is the actual amount exchanged in a transaction; the latter is expressed in vecnu or canja; neither is the same as "value" or vamji; in colloquial English, these are sometimes interchanged, at least partially because of the rarity of barter and bargaining in the marketplace}

 ↑

}; {cf. canja, friti, janta, jdini, kargu, pleji, dapma, vamji for 'value', ve vecnu for 'cost', canja, fepni, jerna, jinga, pleji, prali, rupnu, sfasa, vamji}

 ↑

jdini
{din di'i }
money ; 'dinero'
x1 is money/currency issued by x2; {adjective:}

x1 is financial/monetary/pecuniary/fiscal {'currency' sometimes is restricted to paper money {= pledi'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. fepni, jdima, rupnu, sicni, canja, rupnu}

 ↑

jduli
{dul jdu }
jelly
x1 is a quantity of jelly/semisolid {texture}
of material/composition including x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is gelatinous}; {cf. litki, sligu}

 ↑

je
{jev jve }
tanru and logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought and jecta
{jec je'a }
polity ; 'state'
x1 is a polity/state governing territory/domain x2; {government/territory relationship} {{adjective:}

x1 is civil/political}; {cf. gugde, tutra, turni, natmi, jansu, lanci, cecmu}

 ↑

jeftu
{jef }
week
x1 is x2 weeks in duration {default is 1 week}
by standard x3 {re. x3, a week may be more or less than seven days, classically being tied to the time between trips to the marketplace; this week {= cabjeftu}

 ↑

; next week {= bavlamjeftu}

 ↑

; last week {= prulamjeftu}

 ↑

}; {cf. detri, djedi, masti, nanca}

 ↑

jegvo
{jeg je'o }
Jehovist
x1 pertains to the common Judeo-Christian-Muslim culture/religion/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. lijda, muslo, dadjo, xriso}

 ↑

jei
{jez }
truth abstract abstractor: truth-value abstractor;
x1 is truth value of {bridi}
under metaphysics x2 {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place} jelca
{jel }
burn
x1 burns/{ignites/is flammable/inflammable}
at temperature x2 in atmosphere x3 {default x2/x3 to normal temperatures in air; ignite {= jelcfa}

 ↑

, flammable/inflammable {usually = jelka'e or jelfrili}

 ↑

}; {cf. fagri, kijno, sigja, livla, sacki}

 ↑

jemna
{jme }
gem
x1 is a gem/polished stone/pearl of type x2 from gemstone/material/source x3 {also jewel {= jmeja'i}

 ↑

; gemstone {= x2, x3, or jmero'i, jmekunra}

 ↑

; pearl {= selcakyjme - a gem found inside a shell, tercakyjme - a gem made of shell material, boijme - any ball-shaped gem}

 ↑

, mother-of-pearl {= cakyjme}

 ↑

}; {cf. kunra, rokci, jadni, dirba, kargu, krili, pulji}

 ↑

jenca
{jen }
shock
x1 {event}
shocks/stuns x2 {cf. darxi, gunta, spaji}

 ↑

jendu
{jed }
axle ; 'spindle'
x1 is an axle/spindle {tool}
on which x2 rotates, of material/properties x3 {cf. se carna, gunro, tutci}

 ↑

jenmi
{jem jei }
army
x1 {mass}
is an army serving group/community x2 {mass}
in function x3 {activity}

 ↑

{cf. bilni, sonci, xarci}

 ↑

jerna
{}
earn
x1 {agent/person}
earns/{deserves/merits}
wages/salary/pay x2 for work/service x3 {activity}

 ↑

{also x2 reward {= zanseljerna or nemjerna}

 ↑

, punishment/comeuppance {= malseljerna}

 ↑

; x3 behavior; job {= terjerna}

 ↑

; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erjerna, po'erseljerna for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. jibri, pleji, vecnu, cnemu, canja, jdima, jinga, prali, sfasa, janta, kargu, vamji}

 ↑

jersi
{je'i }
chase ; 'pursue'
x1 chases/pursues/{physically}
follows after x2; volition is not implied for
x1 or x2 {
x1 follows after x2}; {cf. kavbu, rivbi, kalte, lidne}

 ↑

jerxo
{jex }
Algerian
x1 reflects Algerian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

jesni
{jes }
needle
x1 is a needle {pointed shape/form, not tool}
of material x2 {cf. konju, pijne, jipno, kinli}

 ↑

jetce
{je'e }
jet
x1 is a jet {expelled stream}
of material x2 expelled from x3 {cf. sputu, vamtu}

 ↑

jetnu
{jet je'u }
true
x1 {du'u}
is true/truth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2 {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}; {cf. stace, jitfa, fatci, birti, cfika}

 ↑

jgalu
{ja'u }
claw ; 'talon'
x1 is a/the claw/nail/talon {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: pointed, penetrating, physical weapon {cf. denci, jirna, batci}

 ↑

jganu
{jga }
angle
x1 is an angle {2-dimensional shape/form}
from vertex x2 subtended by lateral {segment}
x3 {also {adjective:}

x1 is angular; x2 corner; {segment x3 can be defined by interval}

 ↑

}; {cf. kojna, linji, konju, mokca}

 ↑

jgari
{jai }
grasp ; 'grip'
x1 grasps/holds/clutches/seizes/grips/{hugs}
x2 with x3 {part of
x1}
at locus x4 {part of x2}

 ↑

{hug {= birjai, pamjai}

 ↑

; embrace {= xadjai}

 ↑

; handshake {= xanjai, jikyxanjai}

 ↑

, handle {= veljai, veljaitci}

 ↑

}; {cf. ralte, pencu, darxi, batke, rinju}

 ↑

jgena
{jge }
knot
x1 is a knot/tangle in/between x2 {object/jo'u-objects}

 ↑

{knot {verb = jgegau, jgezu'e, jgeri'a, jgela'a}

 ↑

, knot: fastening between two or more cords {= jgeterjo'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. pluja, julne, lasna, skori}

 ↑

jgina
{gin }
gene
x1 is a gene of creature {or locus on creature}
x2 determining trait/process x3 {also chromosome = {gincilta, ginpoi}

 ↑

}; {cf. cerda}

 ↑

jgira
{jgi }
pride
x1 {person}
feels/has pride in/about x2 {abstraction}

 ↑

{an emotional combination of satisfaction and respect/esteem towards property{ies}
or action{s}
of person/entity that has a specific tie to emoter; self-pride {= se'ijgi, tolcumla}

 ↑

; use x2 tu'a for pride in non-specific actions/properties of someone}; {cf. cinmo, cumla, sevzi, sinma, snada}

 ↑

jgita
{git }
guitar ; 'guitar'
x1 is guitar/violin/fiddle/harp {stringed musical instrument}
with actuator/plectrum/bow x2 {also lute, viola, cello}; {cf. zgike}

 ↑

jibni
{jbi }
near
x1 is near/close to/approximates x2 in property/quantity x3 {ka/ni}

 ↑

{cf. darno, nenri, vanbi, jbini, lamji, zvati, cpana, bartu, diklo, stuzi}

 ↑

jibri
{jib }
job
x1 is a job/occupation/employment/vocation {a type of work regularly done for pay}
of person x2 {working for another {= selplijibri}

 ↑

}; {cf. briju, gunka, te jerna which is employment specifically for pay and not specifically for another, te pilno which is employment not necessarily for pay and not necessarily regular or lasting but for another, se gasnu and se zukte for incidental activities}

 ↑

jicla
{}
stir
x1 {object, or event: force}
stirs/mixes/{roils/agitates}
fluid {gas/liquid}
x2 {convection {= nenflejicla}

 ↑

; agentive stirring {= jiclygau, jiclyzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. fanza, tunta, mixre}

 ↑

jicmu
{cmu }
basis
x1 is a basis/foundation/underlying or fundamental principle of x2;
x1 is at the bottom of x2 {x2 is founded on basis
x1 {= selcmu for reordered places}

 ↑

; {adjective:}

x1 is basic/basal/fundamental}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ji'u, jamfu, zbepi, genja, krasi}

 ↑

jijnu
{jij }
intuit
x1 {person}
intuits x2 {du'u}
about subject x3; {epistemology} {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}; {cf. djuno, facki, jimpe, jinvi, nabmi, pensi, sidbo, smadi}

 ↑

jikca
{jik }
socialize ; 'social'
x1 interacts/behaves socially with x2;
x1 socializes with/is sociable towards x2 {cf. tarti, penmi}

 ↑

jikru
{}
liquor
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of liquor/spirits distilled from x2 {cf. barja, vanju, birje, xalka}

 ↑

jilka
{jil }
alkali
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali/base of composition including x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is alkaline}; {cf. sodna, bakri, sodva}

 ↑

jilra
{}
jealous
x1 {person}
is jealous of/envies x2 {person}
about/for x3 {property - ka}

 ↑

{cf. cinmo}

 ↑

jimca
{jic }
branch ; 'limb'
x1 is a branch/bough/limb of x2; x2 forks into branches
x1; {preferred over metaphorical birka} {also appendage}; {cf. birka, rebla, tuple}

 ↑

jimpe
{jmi }
understand ; 'comprehend'
x1 understands/comprehends fact/truth x2 {du'u}
about subject x3;
x1 understands {fi}
x3 {cf. djuno, jijnu, morna, smuni, saske, viska}

 ↑

jimte
{jit }
limit
x1 is a limit/extreme/bound/border/{confinement}
of x2 in property/domain x3 {restrain/constrain within limits {= jitri'u, jitygau, jityzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ji'e, traji, korbi, kuspe, rinju, bapli, curmi, fanta, jbini}

 ↑

jinci
{}
shears
x1 is a pair of shears/scissors for cutting x2 {cf. katna}

 ↑

jinga
{jig ji'a }
win ; 'gain'
x1 {person/team}
wins/gains prize x2 from/over x3 {competitors/losers}
in competition x4 {also:
x1 is a victor; x2 reward; x3 competitors here are opponents and in many situations, defeated/losers, vs. the set of those competing for a goal; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erji'a, po'erselji'a for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. cirko, jivna, talsa, cnemu, prali, pleji, sfasa, jdima, jerna, bradi, kargu, kelci}

 ↑

jinku
{}
vaccine
x1 is a vaccine/immune-system stimulant protecting x2 against disease x3 introduced by method x {also serum; inoculation {= jestu'u veljinku}

 ↑

}
{cf. }

 ↑

jinme
{jim }
metal
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of made of metal of composition including x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is metallic}; {cf. cnisa, gasta, lastu, margu, nikle, ransu, romge, sodna, tinci, tirse, tunka, zinki, kunra, sodva}

 ↑

jinru
{jir }
immerse
x1 {object/person}
is immersed/submerged/bathes in liquid x2 {take a bath/bathe {= jirsezlu'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. lumci, nenri, jinsa}

 ↑

jinsa
{jis }
clean
x1 {object}
is clean/pure of material/contaminant/dirt x2 by standard x3 {cf. lumci, jinru, curve, sepli}

 ↑

jinto
{}
well
x1 is a well/spring of fluid x2 at location x3 {cf. krasi, djacu, fenra}

 ↑

jinvi
{jiv ji'i }
opine
x1 thinks/opines x2 {opinion}
{du'u}
is true about subject/issue x3 on grounds x4 {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}
{cf. cmavo list pe'i, ciksi, jijnu, nabmi, pensi, senpi, sidbo, birti, pinka}

 ↑

jinzi
{jiz }
innate
x1 {property - ka}
is an innate/inherent/intrinsic/natural property/quality/aspect of x2 {cf. lakne, rarna, stati, cmavo list ka'e, tcaci}

 ↑

jipci
{}
chicken
x1 is a chicken/{hen/cock/rooster}/small fowl {a type of bird}
of species/breed x2 {cf. cipni}

 ↑

jipno
{jip ji'o }
tip ; 'point'
x1 is a tip/point/vertex/extremity {0-dimension shape/form}
on object x2 at locus x3 {cf. mokca, jesni, fanmo, kojna, krasi}

 ↑

jirna
{}
horn
x1 is a/the horn {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: pointed extremity} {cf. jgalu, bongu}

 ↑

jisra
{}
juice
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of juice/nectar from-source/of-type x2 {water-based extract from a {generally}
biological source}
{cf. }

 ↑

jitfa
{jif }
false
x1 {du'u}
is false/is an untruth by standard/epistemology/metaphysics x2 {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}; {cf. fatci, stace, jetnu, cfika}

 ↑

jitro
{tro }
control
x1 has control over/harnesses/manages/directs/conducts x2 in x3 {activity/event/performance}

 ↑

{manage {= selzu'etro, selzukfu'e, gu'etro, gunfu'e, xaktro, xakfu'e}
{as distinct from manager/boss = gunterbe'e, gunja'a, gunmi'e, gunca'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ji'o, bapli, te bende, gidva - which does not necessarily control or command, jatna, macnu, minde, ponse, ralju, rinka, sazri, turni, vlipa, xance, xlura}

 ↑

jivbu
{}
weave
x1 weaves x2 from material/{yarn}
x3 {cf. fenso, nivji}

 ↑

jivna
{jvi }
compete ; 'rival'
x1 competes/vies with opponent x2 in contest/competition x3 {event}
for gain x4;
x1 rivals x2 {also x2 opponent{s}

 ↑

, competitor{s}

 ↑

, rival{s}

 ↑

; x3 competition, race; x4 prize, reward, recognition {gain may be internal or external}

 ↑

}; {cf. cnemu, jinga, talsa, bradi, fapro, kelci}

 ↑

jmaji
{jaj }
gather
x1 {mass/jo'u}
gathers/collects at location x2 from locations x3 {mass/jo'u}

 ↑

{also focus {= seljmaji}

 ↑

}; {cf. crepu}

 ↑

jmifa
{}
shoal ; 'reef'
x1 is a shoal {shallow hazard}/reef of material x2 in body of water x3 {rapids {= ri'erjmifa, ri'ercaxno}

 ↑

}; {cf. caxno}

 ↑

jmina
{min }
add ; 'augment'
x1 adds/combines x2 to/with x3, with result x4;
x1 augments x2 by amount x3 {cf. zmadu, banro, sumji, zenba, setca}

 ↑

jmive
{miv ji'e }
live
x1 lives/is alive by standard x2;
x1 is an organism/living thing {{adjective:}

x1 is vital, organic}; {cf. lifri, morsi, stuzi, zvati, xabju}

 ↑

jo
{jov }
tanru iff logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if jo'e
{jom }
union non-logical connective: union of sets jo'u
{jo'u }
in common with non-logical connective: in common with; along with {unmixed}

 ↑

joi
{jol joi }
in a mass with non-logical connective: mixed conjunction; "and" meaning "mixed together", forming a mass jordo
{jor jo'o }
Jordanian
x1 reflects Jordanian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. filso}

 ↑

jorne
{jon jo'e }
joined
x1 is joined to/connects to/is united with x2 at common locus x3;
x1 and x2 are a union {also joined/fastened/attached by joint x3/by means of x3/with fastener x3; fastener {= jo'etci, jonvelyla'a}

 ↑

; train, sequence of joined objects {= porjo'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. lasna, fenso, kansa, pencu, penmi}

 ↑

ju
{juv }
tanru whether logical connective: tanru-internal afterthought whether-or-not jubme
{jub jbu }
table
x1 is a table/flat solid upper surface of material x2, supported by legs/base/pedestal x3 {cf. ckana, jamfu, nilce, zbepi, tsina, stizu}

 ↑

judri
{}
address
x1 is an address of/are coordinates of x2 in system x3 {cf. tcita, cmene, ciste, stuzi}

 ↑

jufra
{juf ju'a }
sentence ; 'phrase'
x1 {text}
is a sentence/statement about x2 {topic/subject/predicate/focus}
in language x3 {phrase {= jufpau, suzrelvla}

 ↑

}; {cf. valsi, bangu, gerna, cusku, smuni}

 ↑

jukni
{juk }
spider ; 'arachnid'
x1 is a spider/arachnid/{crustacean/crab/lobster/non-insect arthropod}
of species/breed x2 {cf. cinki, danlu}

 ↑

jukpa
{jup }
cook
x1 cooks/prepares food-for-eating x2 by recipe/method x3 {process}

 ↑

{cook with heat {= glajukpa}

 ↑

, bake {= tokyjukpa}

 ↑

; fry {= rasyjukpa}

 ↑

}; {cf. cupra, bredi}

 ↑

julne
{ju'e }
net
x1 is a net/filter allowing passage of x2, prohibiting passage of x3, netting properties x4 {also sieve}; {cf. komcu, ciste, jgena}

 ↑

jundi
{jud ju'i }
attentive ; 'attend'
x1 is attentive towards/attends/tends/pays attention to object/affair x2 {cf. kurji, zvati}

 ↑

jungo
{jug }
Chinese
x1 reflects Chinese {Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, etc.}
culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

junla
{jul }
clock
x1 is clock/watch/timer measuring time units x2 to precision x3 with timing mechanism/method x4 {also timepiece}; {cf. cacra, mentu, snidu, tcika, temci}

 ↑

junri
{jur }
serious
x1 {person}
is serious/earnest/has gravity about x2 {event/state/activity}

 ↑

{also solemn {= drijunri, ri'irjunri, tcejunri}

 ↑

}; {cf. tilju, xalbo, badri, ritli}

 ↑

junta
{}
weight
x1 is the weight of object x2 in {gravitational or other force}
field x3 {cf. grake, linto, tilju, bunda}

 ↑

jurme
{jum }
germ
x1 is a bacteria/germ/microbe/protozoan/amoeba {1-celled life}
of species/defining property x2 {cf. vidru}

 ↑

jursa
{jus }
severe ; 'harsh'
x1 {event/action/state}
is severe/harsh to x2 {victim/experiencer} {cf. gunta, vlile}

 ↑

jutsi
{jut }
species
x1 is a species of genus x2, family x3, etc.; {open-ended tree-structure categorization} {also subspecies, order, phylum; {places do not correspond to specific levels in the hierarchy; rather,
x1 is at a "lower" or "bushier" part of the tree than x2, x2 is "lower" than x3, etc.; skipping a place thus means that there is one or more known-and-unspecified levels of hierarchy between the two}

 ↑

; not limited to Linnean animal/plant taxonomy}; {cf. klesi, lanzu}

 ↑

juxre
{jux }
clumsy ; 'awkward'
x1 {action}
is clumsy/awkward by standard x2 {cf. }

 ↑

jvinu
{vin ji'u }
view
x1 is the view/scene/panorama/sight/prospect of x2 {object/location}
from point-of-view x3 {also
x1 is on display to x2/x3}; {cf. catlu, kanla, viska, canko, jarco}

 ↑

 ↑

ka
{kam }
property abstract abstractor: property/quality abstractor {-ness}

 ↑

;
x1 is quality/property exhibited by {bridi} kabri
{}
cup
x1 is a cup/glass/tumbler/mug/vessel/{bowl}
containing contents x2, and of material x3 {a kabri is normally eaten from by lifting it; a palta is not}; {cf. palta, citka, blaci, tansi}

 ↑

kacma
{}
camera
x1 is a camera/photographic equipment recording illumination type x2 images to media x3 {cf. lenjo}

 ↑

kadno
{}
Canadian
x1 reflects Canadian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. , bemro, glico}

 ↑

kafke
{}
cough
x1 coughs/farts/burps up/out x2 {predominantly gaseous}
from orifice x3 {cf. bilma, senci, sputu, vamtu}

 ↑

kagni
{kag }
company
x1 is a company/corporation/firm/partnership chartered by authority x2 for purpose x3 {also enterprise/organization {if chartered}

 ↑

}; {cf. kansa, kamni, banxa, bende}

 ↑

kajde
{jde }
warn ; 'caution'
x1 {event/experience}
warns/cautions x2 {person}
of/about danger x3 {event/state/property}

 ↑

{agentive warning {= jdegau, jdezu'e}

 ↑

; an attempt to warn which may not succeed {= jdetoi, jdegautoi, jdezuktoi}

 ↑

}; {cf. ckape, nupre, snura, tcica, xlura}

 ↑

kajna
{}
shelf ; 'counter'
x1 is a shelf/counter/bar in/on/attached to supporting object x2, for purpose x3 {cf. balni}

 ↑

kakne
{ka'e }
able ; 'can'
x1 is able to do/be/capable of doing/being x2 {event/state}
under conditions x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{also: has talent; know how to; know how to use {= plika'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. stati, certu, gasnu {in the time-free potential sense}

 ↑

, cmavo list ka'e, cmavo list nu'o, cmavo list pu'i, djuno, zifre}

 ↑

kakpa
{}
dig
x1 {agent}
digs x2 {material}
up/out of x3 {source/hole}
with limbs/tool{s}
x4 {also
x1 cuts into x3 {with material removal}

 ↑

}; {cf. katna, plixa, sraku, canpa, sraku}

 ↑

kalci
{}
feces ; 'shit'
x1 is a/the feces/excrement/dung/shit of x2 {animal/person}

 ↑

; {adjective:}

x1 is fecal {matter}

 ↑

{also crap}; {cf. ganxo, pinca, vikmi, mabla, festi}

 ↑

kalri
{kar }
open
x1 {portal/passage/entranceway}
is open/ajar/not shut permitting passage/access to x2 by x3 {as a doorway}; {cf. ganlo, pagre, canko, vorme}

 ↑

kalsa
{kas }
chaotic
x1 is chaotic/disordered in property/aspect x2 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. cunso, cnici}

 ↑

kalte
{kat }
hunt
x1 hunts/stalks prey/quarry x2 for purpose x3 {also verb fish {= fipkalte}

 ↑

}; {cf. jersi, kavbu, sisku, rivbi}

 ↑

kamju
{}
column
x1 is a column/pillar of material x2 {spine {= bo'urkamju}

 ↑

, vertebra {= kamjybo'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. ckana, garna, sanli, slanu}

 ↑

kamni
{}
committee
x1 {mass}
is a committee with task/purpose x2 of body x3 {board of directors/trustees {= trukamni, gritrukamni}

 ↑

}
{cf. , bende, kagni}

 ↑

kampu
{kau }
common
x1 {property - ka}
is common/general/universal among members of set x2 {complete set}

 ↑

{cf. cafne, rirci, fadni, cnano, tcaci, lakne, cmima, simxu}

 ↑

kanba
{}
goat ; 'kid, billy, baa'
x1 is a goat/angora/{billy-goat/kid}
of species/breed x2 {cf. lanme, sunla}

 ↑

kancu
{kac }
count
x1 {agent}
counts the number in set x2 to be x3 {number/count}
counting {off}
by units x4 {x2 is complete set}

 ↑

; {cf. kanji, satci, merli}

 ↑

kandi
{kad }
dim
x1 is dim/dull/pale/non-intense in property x2 {ka}
as received/measured by observer x3 {in colors, indicates unsaturated, pastel, pale {though blabi can also indicate a kind of paleness}

 ↑

}; {cf. blabi, carmi, klina, linto, manku, murse, ruble, skari, milxe, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xekri, xunre, zirpu}

 ↑

kanji
{kaj }
calculate ; 'reckon'
x1 calculates/reckons/computes x2 {value {ni}

 ↑

/state}
from data x3 by process x4 {cf. kancu, jdice, skami}

 ↑

kanla
{kal }
eye ; 'ocular'
x1 is a/the eye {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: sensory apparatus}; {adjective:}

x1 is ocular {
x1 is optic}; {cf. jvinu, kerlo, viska, kumte}

 ↑

kanro
{ka'o }
healthy
x1 is healthy/fit/well/in good health by standard x2 {cf. bilma, mikce}

 ↑

kansa
{kan }
with ; 'accompany'
x1 is with/accompanies/is a companion of x2, in state/condition/enterprise x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{
x1 is together with/along with x2}
{cf. kagni, jorne, gunma, girzu, lasna}

 ↑

kantu
{ka'u }
quantum
x1 is a quantum/ray/elementary particle/smallest measurable increment of property/activity x2 {quantum ray {= bonka'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. selci for masses and most objects; ratni, gradu, gusni, nejni, linji}

 ↑

kanxe
{kax }
conjunction
x1 is a conjunction, stating that x2 {du'u}
and x3 {du'u}
are both true {cf. , vlina}

 ↑

karbi
{kab }
compare
x1 {observer}
compares x2 with x3 in property x4 {ka}

 ↑

, determining comparison x5 {state}

 ↑

{cf. }

 ↑

karce
{}
car
x1 is a car/automobile/truck/van {a wheeled motor vehicle}
for carrying x2, propelled by x3 {cf. carce, xislu, marce, sabnu}

 ↑

karda
{}
card
x1 is a card {small nearly-2-dimensional shape/form}
of material x2, shape x3 {x3 shape default rectangular}

 ↑

; {cf. matci, tapla, plita}

 ↑

kargu
{}
costly
x1 {object/commodity/property/event}
is costly/expensive/dear to x2 by standard x3 {
x1 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erkargu for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. vamji, dirba, vajni, jdima, pleji, canja, jerna, jinga, jemna, sfasa, vecnu}

 ↑

karli
{}
collar
x1 is a collar/ring/belt/band around/surrounding x2 made of material x3 {also sphincter}; {cf. sruri, djine}

 ↑

karni
{}
journal
x1 is a journal/periodical/magazine/{newspaper}
with content x2 published by x3 for audience x4 {x2 may be a subject, but not all journals have a single subject; all have some sort of principle defining what is included, so this need not be a list}; {cf. papri, pelji, tcidu}

 ↑

katna
{ka'a }
cut
x1 {tool/blade/force}
cuts {through}/splits/divides x2 {object}
into pieces x3 {for
x1 force, it is a force acting as a blade, not acting upon a blade; agentive cutting {= ka'argau, ka'arzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. kakpa, sraku for cutting into without division; plixa, dakfu, jinci, porpi, spofu, tunta, xrani, fatri, fendi, balre, dilcu}

 ↑

kavbu
{kav }
capture ; 'catch'
x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with trap/restraint x3 {catch something thrown {= rerkavbu}

 ↑

}; {cf. jersi, kalte, pinfu, sisku, se rinju}

 ↑

ke
{kem }
start grouping start grouping of tanru, etc; ... type of ... ; overrides normal tanru left grouping {cf. cmavo list ke'e}

 ↑

ke'e
{kep ke'e }
end grouping elidable terminator: end of tanru left grouping override {usually elidable}

 ↑

{cf. cmavo list ke}

 ↑

kecti
{kec ke'i }
pity
x1 {person}
pities/feels sorry for x2 {person}
about x3 {abstraction}

 ↑

{cf. cinmo, xendo}

 ↑

kei
{kez }
end abstraction elidable terminator: end abstraction bridi {often elidable}

 ↑

kelci
{kel kei }
play
x1 {agent}
plays with plaything/toy x2 {play game {= ci'erkei}

 ↑

, play competitively {= jvikei}

 ↑

}; {cf. jivna, jinga, zdile}

 ↑

kelvo
{ke'o }
kelvin
x1 is x2 degree{s}
Kelvin {metric}
in temperature {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. gradu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

kenra
{ken }
cancer
x1 is a cancer {malignant disease}
in x2 {cf. }

 ↑

kensa
{kes }
outer space
x1 is outer space near/associated with celestial body/region x2 {cf. canlu, munje, terdi, tsani}

 ↑

kerfa
{kre }
hair
x1 is a/the hair/fur {body-part}
of x2 at body location x3 {cf. skapi, sunla, pimlu}

 ↑

kerlo
{ker }
ear ; 'aural, earlobe'
x1 is a/the ear {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: sensory apparatus, information gathering} {{adjective:}

x1 is aural}; {cf. kanla, savru, smaji, tirna, ractu}

 ↑

ketco
{ket tco }
South American ; 'Quechua'
x1 reflects South American culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2 {cf. merko, xispo, brazo, gento, spano}

 ↑

kevna
{kev ke'a }
cavity ; 'cave'
x1 is a cavity/hole/hollow/cavern in x2;
x1 is concave within x2; x2 is hollow at locus
x1 {also pit, depression, concavity; hollow {= selke'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. fenra, kunti, canlu, canko, galxe, tubnu}

 ↑

kicne
{kic ki'e }
cushion
x1 cushions x2 with material x3;
x1 is a cushion/pillow/pad {for x2}
of padding material x3 {cf. ckana, matci}

 ↑

kijno
{kij }
oxygen
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of oxygen {O}

 ↑

; {metaphor: supporting life/combustion} {cf. jelca, vacri, vasxu}

 ↑

kilto
{ki'o }
1000 ; metric 'kilo'
x1 is a thousand {1000; 1
x10**3}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro, minli}

 ↑

kinli
{kil }
sharp ; 'keen'
x1 is sharp/keen at locus x2 {cf. balre, dakfu, jesni}

 ↑

kisto
{kis }
Pakistani
x1 reflects Pakistani/Pashto culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. xurdo}

 ↑

klaji
{laj }
street ; 'avenue'
x1 is a street/avenue/lane/drive/cul-de-sac/way/alley/{road}
at x2 accessing x3 {also corridor; not typically a route between points, but offers access to sites along it}; {cf. naxle, panka, pluta, dargu}

 ↑

klaku
{kak }
weep
x1 weeps/cries tears x2 about/for reason x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. badri, krixa}

 ↑

klama
{kla }
come
x1 comes/goes to destination x2 from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle x5 {also travels, journeys, moves, leaves to ... from ...;
x1 is a traveller; {x4 as a set includes points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly}

 ↑

}; {cf. cadzu, bajra, marce, vofli, litru, muvdu, cpare, cmavo list ka'a, pluta, bevri, farlu, limna, vitke}

 ↑

klani
{lai }
quantity
x1 is a quantity quantified/measured/enumerated by x2 {quantifier}
on scale x3 {si'o}

 ↑

{also count}; {cf. cmavo list la'u, namcu}

 ↑

klesi
{kle lei }
class
x1 {mass/si'o}
is a class/category/subgroup/subset within x2 with defining property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{also type, kind, classification, species, genus, family, order, phylum}; {cf. cmavo list le'a, cmima, jutsi, ciste, girzu, lanzu, vrici}

 ↑

klina
{kli }
clear
x1 {object/media}
is clear/transparent/without obstacle to in-the-clear x2 {transmission} {also lucid; x2 remains apparent/lucid/clear {figurative use for 'understandable' is discouraged}

 ↑

}; {cf. kandi, zunti - nalzu'i s better for 'unhindered'}

 ↑

kliru
{}
chlorine
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of halogen of type x2 {chlorine, fluorine, iodine, etc.} {also bromine; default chlorine}
{cf. }

 ↑

kliti
{kit }
clay
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of clay {moist, clammy dirt}
of composition including x2 {cf. dertu, pesxu, staku}

 ↑

klupe
{lup lu'e }
screw
x1 is a screw {fastener}
for purpose x2, threads {pitch, material}
x3, frame {size, material}
x {also bolt}; {cf. korcu, sarlu, tutci}

 ↑

kluza
{luz }
loose ; 'blouse'
x1 {obj.}
is loose/bloused/not tight on x2 {obj.}
at locus x3 {cf. tagji, trati, rinju}

 ↑

kobli
{kob ko'i }
cabbage ; 'cole-'
x1 is a quantity of cabbage/lettuce/leafy vegetable of species/strain x2 {cf. stagi}

 ↑

kojna
{koj ko'a }
corner
x1 is a corner/point/at-least-3-dimensional {solid}
angle {shape/form}
in/on x2, of material x3 {also apex; a corner exists on three dimensions but need not be limited to points; it suggests a discontinuity in slope in some direction; i.e. in some planar cross-section}; {cf. jipno, konju, bliku, fanmo, jganu, krasi}

 ↑

kolme
{kol ko'e }
coal
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of coal/peat/anthracite/bituminous from source x2 {cf. tabno, tarla}

 ↑

komcu
{kom }
comb
x1 is a comb {many-needled shape}
of material x2 with tines/needles x3 {cf. julne, forca, burcu}

 ↑

konju
{kon ko'u }
cone
x1 is a cone {shape/form}
of material x2 with vertex x3 {also ellipse, ellipsoid {= konclupa}

 ↑

}; {cf. jesni, djine, sovda, kojna, jganu}

 ↑

korbi
{kor koi }
edge ; 'border, curb'
x1 is an edge/margin/border/curb/boundary of x2 next-to/bordering-on x3 {cf. cmavo list koi, greku, mlana, jimte, ctebi, bartu}

 ↑

korcu
{kro }
bent ; 'crooked, corkscrew' {adjective:}

x1 is bent/crooked/not straight or direct/{twisted}/folded {cf. cinje, klupe, kruvi, polje, sarlu, sirji, bargu, genxu}

 ↑

korka
{kok }
cork
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cork/bark from tree/species x2; {material} {cf. }

 ↑

kosta
{kos }
coat
x1 is a coat/jacket/sweater/cloak/{cape/shawl/pullover}
{extra outer garment}
of material x2 {cf. pastu, sunla, taxfu}

 ↑

kramu
{}
acre
x1 is x2 local area unit{s}
{non-metric}
{default 1}
by standard x3, x4 subunits {additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...}

 ↑

; {cf. rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda}

 ↑

krasi
{kra }
source ; 'origin'
x1 {site/event}
is a source/start/beginning/origin of x2 {object/event/process}

 ↑

{also root {figurative sense}

 ↑

; {adjective:}

x1 is initial}; {cf. fanmo, cmavo list ra'i, sabji, cfari, jipno, traji, kojna, genja, jicmu, sitna, jinto}

 ↑

krati
{ka'i }
represent ; 'proxy'
x1 represents/is an agent/proxy/stands-in for {absent}
x2 in matter{s}

 ↑

/function{s}
x3 {also: on behalf of}; {cf. cmavo list ka'i, jansu, catni, vipsi, pulji}

 ↑

krefu
{ref ke'u }
recur
x1 {event}
is the x3'rd recurrence/repetition of x2 {abstract}

 ↑

; x2 happens again in {form}

x1 {also case, another, instance, different, other, time, occasion}; {cf. fukpi, rapli, cafne, fasnu, xruti}

 ↑

krici
{kri }
believe ; 'creed'
x1 believes {without evidence}
that belief/creed x2 {du'u}
is true/assumed about subject x3 {also gives credence}; {cf. censa, cevni, lijda, makfa, malsi, senpi, birti}

 ↑

krili
{}
crystal
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of crystal of composition x2 in form/arrangement x3 {x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification}; {cf. jemna, bisli}

 ↑

krinu
{rin ki'u }
reason
x1 {event/state}
is a reason/justification/explanation for/causing/permitting x2 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. ciksi, rinka, nibli, mukti, se jalge, te zukte, cmavo list ki'u, bapli}

 ↑

krixa
{kix ki'a }
cry out
x1 cries out/yells/howls sound x2;
x1 is a crier {cf. klaku, bacru}

 ↑

kruca
{kuc }
intersect ; 'cross'
x1 intersects/crosses/traverses x2 at locus x3 {cf. cripu, ragve}

 ↑

kruji
{ruj }
cream
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of cream/emulsion/puree {consistency}
of composition x2 {x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification}}; {cf. ladru, matne}

 ↑

kruvi
{ruv kru }
curve
x1 is a curve/turn/bend in x2, at locus x3, and defined by set of points/properties x4 {{adjective:}

x1 is curved; {x4 as a set of points is sufficiently specified to identify the relevant properties of the bend}

 ↑

}; {cf. korcu, bargu, genxu, linji, sirji}

 ↑

ku'a
{kuz }
intersection non-logical connective: intersection of sets kubli
{kub }
cube
x1 is a cube/regular polyhedron/polygon of dimensions x2 {def. 3}

 ↑

, surfaces/sides x3 {def. 6}

 ↑

{cf. kurfa - needed for 'cube', bliku for a physical object; tanbo, tapla, tarmi}

 ↑

kucli
{}
curious
x1 is curious/wonders about/is interested in/{inquisitive about}
x2 {object/abstract}

 ↑

{inquisitive {= retkucli}

 ↑

}; {cf. manci, sisku, se cinri}

 ↑

kufra
{kuf }
comfort
x1 feels comfort/is comfortable with conditions/environmental property{ies}
x2 {cf. cinmo}

 ↑

kukte
{kuk }
delicious ; 'cooked, tasty'
x1 is delicious/tasty/delightful to observer/sense x2 {person, or sensory activity} {
x1 is a delicacy}; {cf. gusta, ralci, vrusi, cpina}

 ↑

kulnu
{klu }
culture
x1 {mass of ideas, customs, skills, arts}
is culture of nation/ethos x2 {mass}

 ↑

;
x1 is ethnic {{note that x2 is NOT individual; culture is what is shared among people and is not an individual trait}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ka'u, cmavo list ku'u, natmi, cecmu}

 ↑

kumfa
{kum ku'a }
room
x1 is a room of/in structure x2 surrounded by partitions/walls/ceiling/floor x3 {mass/jo'u}

 ↑

{also chamber}; {cf. bitmu, canlu, zdani}

 ↑

kumte
{}
camel
x1 is a camel/llama/alpaca/vicuna/dromedary of species/breed x2 {llama {= tcokumte}

 ↑

, Bactrian camel {= zdokumte}

 ↑

; Arabian camel/dromedary {= rabykumte}

 ↑

}; {cf. sunla, kanla, xirma, xasli}

 ↑

kunra
{kun }
mineral ; 'mined'
x1 is/contains/is made from a mineral/ore of type/metal x2 mined from location/lode/mine x3 {cf. jinme, bisli, rokci, jemna}

 ↑

kunti
{kut }
empty ; 'vacant'
x1 {container}
is empty/vacant of x2 {material};
x1 is hollow {also vacuum {= kunti be roda/so'ada}

 ↑

}; {cf. culno, tisna, claxu, canlu, kevna, setca}

 ↑

kurfa
{kur }
square
x1 is a right-angled shape/form defined by set of vertices x2, dimensions x3 {default 2}

 ↑

{also rectangle, square, rectilinear; square {= kubykurfa, pitkubykurfa}

 ↑

, cube {= kurkubli}

 ↑

, rectangle {= clakurfa}

 ↑

, rhombus/diamond {= sa'orkurfa, sa'orpitkubli}

 ↑

}; {cf. bliku, kubli, tapla, salpo, tarmi}

 ↑

kurji
{kuj ku'i }
take care of ; 'care'
x1 takes-care-of/looks after/attends to/provides for/is caretaker for x2 {object/event/person}

 ↑

{also tends, cares for, keeps;
x1 is a keeper/custodian of x2}; {cf. jundi, cinri, prami, raktu, zgana}

 ↑

kurki
{}
bitter ; 'acrid'
x1 is bitter/acrid/sharply disagreeable to observer/sense x2 {cf. titla, slari}

 ↑

kuspe
{kup ku'e }
range ; 'span'
x1 ranges/extends/spans/persists/reaches across/over interval/gap/area/scope/extent/range x2 {cf. ranji, renvi, tcena, bancu, cripu, ragve, vorme, canko, bitmu, sirji, jbini, jimte, preja}

 ↑

kusru
{kus }
cruel
x1 {person}
is cruel/mean/unkind to victim x2 {cf. xendo, jursa}

 ↑

}

 ↑

 ↑

labno
{}
wolf ; 'lobo'
x1 is a wolf/lupine of species/breed x2 {cf. gerku}

 ↑

lacpu
{lap cpu }
pull
x1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags x2 by handle/at locus x3 {gravity {= maicpu}

 ↑

}; {cf. catke, sakci, cokcu}

 ↑

lacri
{lac }
rely
x1 relies/depends/counts on/trusts x2 to bring about/ensure/maintain x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. minde, nitcu, tinbe}

 ↑

ladru
{lad }
milk ; 'lactic'
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of milk from source x2; {adjective:}

x1 is lactic/dairy {cf. lanbi, mabru, tatru, cirla, kruji}

 ↑

lafti
{laf }
lift
x1 {force}
lifts/applies raising/supporting force to x2 at locus x3 in gravity well x4 {{
x1 may be an abstract}

 ↑

; verb lift/raise/elevate {= lafmu'u}

 ↑

}
{cf. , farlu, plipe}

 ↑

lakne
{la'e }
probable ; 'likely'
x1 {event/state/property}
is probable/likely under conditions x2 {cf. cumki, jinzi, kampu, tcaci, cunso, cafne, fadni, cnano}

 ↑

lakse
{lak }
wax
x1 is quantity of wax {substance especially soft/moldable when warm}
from source x2 {also paraffin}; {cf. bifce, ranti, bidju}

 ↑

lalxu
{la'u }
lake ; 'lagoon'
x1 is a lake/lagoon/pool at site/within land mass x2 {cf. daplu, djacu, rirxe, xamsi, zbani}

 ↑

lamji
{lam la'i }
adjacent
x1 is adjacent/beside/next to/in contact with x2 in property/sequence x3 in direction x4 {also touching, contiguous, against}; {cf. zvati, cpana, jibni, diklo, stuzi, bartu, jbini}

 ↑

lanbi
{}
protein ; 'albumin'
x1 is a quantity of protein/albumin of type x2 composed of amino acids {sequence/jo'u}

 ↑

{cf. ladru, sovda}

 ↑

lanci
{}
flag ; 'banner'
x1 is a flag/banner/standard of/symbolizing x2 with pattern{s}
x3 on material x4 {cf. gugde, jecta}

 ↑

lanka
{}
basket
x1 is a basket with contents x2, woven from material x3 {cf. vasru, baktu}

 ↑

lanli
{lal }
analyze
x1 analyzes/examines-in-detail x2 by method/technique/system x3 {process/activity} {cf. catlu, zgana, jarco, pensi, pinka}

 ↑

lanme
{lan }
sheep ; 'lanolin, lamb'
x1 is a sheep/{lamb/ewe/ram}
of species/breed x2 of flock x3 {cf. kanba, sunla}

 ↑

lante
{}
can
x1 is a can/tightly sealed/pre-sealed container for perishable contents x2, made of x3 {cf. botpi, baktu, tinci}

 ↑

lanxe
{lax }
balance
x1 is in balance/equilibrium under forces x2 {mass}

 ↑

{cf. midju, nutli; fapro for balancing/opposing forces, nutli}

 ↑

lanzu
{laz }
family ; 'clan'
x1 {mass}
is a family with members including x2 bonded/tied/joined according to standard x3 {also clan, tribe; x2 is in
x1, a member of
x1 {selylanzu for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. natmi, cmima, girzu, jutsi, klesi}

 ↑

larcu
{lar }
art
x1 {process}
is an art {creative application}
of craft/skill x2 {idea/activity}

 ↑

{{adjective:}

x1 is artistic}; {cf. finti, zbasu, stati}

 ↑

lasna
{la'a }
fasten ; 'lash'
x1 {agent}
fastens/connects/attaches x2 to x3 with fastener x4 {no implication that result is considered a single object; although x2 and x3 may be reversible, x3 may be used for the substrate, the fixed/larger object to which x2 becomes attached};{cf. jorne, fenso, jgena, batke, dinko, kansa}

 ↑

lastu
{}
brass
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of brass {copper/zinc alloy}
of composition including x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is brazen}

 ↑

}; {cf. jinme, ransu, tunka}

 ↑

latmo
{la'o }
Latin
x1 reflects Latin/Roman/Romance culture/empire/language in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

latna
{}
lotus
x1 is a lotus, plant/flower/herb of species/strain x2 symbolizing x3 to culture/religion x4 {cf. budjo, censa, lijda, spati}

 ↑

lazni
{}
lazy
x1 {person}
is lazy/avoiding work/effort concerning action x2 {cf. nejni, vreta, gunka}

 ↑

le'e
{lem }
the stereotypical non-veridical descriptor: the stereotype of those described as ... lebna
{leb le'a }
take
x1 takes/gets/gains/obtains/seizes/{removes}
x2 {object/property}
from x3 {possessor}

 ↑

{also confiscate, appropriate}; {acquire with volition such that
x1 gains possession; x3 is possessor and not merely source, alienation is implied}; {cf. punji, cpacu where volition or previous possession is not necessarily implied, vimcu for alienation where
x1 need not gain possession, canci, cliva}

 ↑

lenjo
{len le'o }
lens
x1 is a lens/glass {focussing shape/form}
focussing x2 to focus/foci x3 by means/material x4 {{adjective:}

x1 is optical; focussing may be optical or otherwise, hence x2 which may be light, sound. X-ray., etc., default is light/optical lens; ka is refraction}
{cf. kacma, minra}

 ↑

lenku
{lek }
cold ; 'cool'
x1 is cold/cool by standard x2 {cf. glare, bisli}

 ↑

lerci
{lec }
late
x1 {event}
is late by standard x2 {cf. clira}

 ↑

lerfu
{ler le'u }
letteral
x1 {la'e zo BY/word-bu}
is a letter/digit/symbol in alphabet/character-set x2 representing x3 {also
x1 glyph, rune, character {also me'o BY/word-bu}

 ↑

, x2 symbol set; {adjective:}

x1 is alphabetic/symbolic; "letteral" used by analogy with "numeral"; sinxa is the more generic symbol}; {cf. mifra, namcu, sinxa, pandi}

 ↑

li'i
{liz }
experience abstract abstractor: experience abstractor;
x1 is x2's experience of {bridi}
{participant or observer}

 ↑

{cf. lifri}

 ↑

libjo
{lib }
Libyan
x1 reflects Libyan culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

lidne
{li'e }
precede ; 'leader'
x1 precedes/leads x2 in sequence x3;
x1 is former/preceding/previous; x2 is latter/following {also
x1 before, forerunner; leading, as in 'leading indicators'; x2 after, trailing {= selyli'e for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list li'e, balvi, ralju, rebla, purci for time sequence, jersi, porsi, jatna, farna}

 ↑

lifri
{lif fri }
experience ; 'life'
x1 {person/passive/state}
undergoes/experiences x2 {event/experience}

 ↑

; x2 happens to
x1 {also has/have {of events/experiences}

 ↑

; {adjective:}

x1 is empirical; suggests passive undergoing but does not exclude active {per zukte}
intent; a deserved experience: reward or punishment {= jernyfri, zanjernyfri, maljernyfri}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ri'i, jmive, fasnu, renvi}

 ↑

lijda
{jda }
religion
x1 is a religion of believers including x2 sharing common beliefs/practices/tenets including x3 {also mythos, creed, traditional beliefs, x2 people{s}

 ↑

, adherents; {adjective:}

x1, x2, x3 are religious/ecclesiastic in nature; x2 is a believer in/of
x1, an adherent/follower of
x1 {= seljda for reordered places}

 ↑

; x2 is a practitioner of x3 {= selterjda for reordered places}

 ↑

; x3 is a tenet/belief/ritual/creed of
x1/x2 {= terjda for reordered places}

 ↑

; priest/clerical {= jdaca'i, jdaka'i, jdaja'a}

 ↑

; organized church/religion {= jdabe'e, jdagri}

 ↑

}; {cf. budjo, censa, cevni, crida, dadjo, jegvo, krici, latna, malsi, marde, muslo, pruxi, ranmi, ritli, xriso, zekri}

 ↑

limna
{lim }
swim
x1 {agent}
swims in fluid x2 {cf. djacu, fulta, klama, litru}

 ↑

lindi
{lid }
lightning
x1 is lightning/electrical arc/thunderbolt striking at/extending to x2 from x3 {also thunder { = lidysna}

 ↑

}; {cf. dikca}

 ↑

linji
{lij li'i }
line
x1 is a line/among lines {1-dimensional shape/form}
defined by set of points x2 {ray/vector {farli'i or porli'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. kruvi, sirji, jganu, kantu, mokca}

 ↑

linsi
{lin }
chain ; 'links'
x1 is a length of chain/links of material x2 with link properties x3 {cf. skori}

 ↑

linto
{li'o }
lightweight
x1 is light in mass/weight by standard x2 {cf. junta, tilju; se xalbo, kandi for metaphor}

 ↑

lisri
{lis }
story
x1 is a story/tale/yarn/narrative about plot/subject/moral x2 by storyteller x3 to audience x4 {also legend; a narrative need not be fictional; x2 may be merely a convention rather than a subject; also x3 tells/recounts story/tale
x1 about x2 to x4 {= selterlisri for place reordering}

 ↑

; note that the storyteller need not be the author}; {cf. ranmi, cfika, skicu, prosa, pemci}

 ↑

liste
{ste }
list
x1 {physical object}
is a list/catalog/register of sequence/set x2 in order x3 in medium x4 {also roll, log}; {x2 is completely specified}

 ↑

; {cf. porsi, girzu, cmima for mental objects wherein order is of varying importance; some manifested order is intrinsic to a physical list, but the specific order may be incidental and not intentional/purposeful}

 ↑

litce
{lic }
liter
x1 is x2 liter{s}
{metric}
in volume {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. merli, grake, mitre, dekpu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

litki
{lik }
liquid
x1 is liquid/fluid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3 {conditions include temperature and pressure}; {cf. cilmo, djacu, lumci, runta, pambe, sudga, gapci, sligu, flecu, jduli}

 ↑

litru
{li'u }
travel
x1 travels/journeys/goes/moves via route x2 using means/vehicle x3;
x1 is a traveller {x2 as a set includes points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly}

 ↑

; {cf. bajra, cadzu, cpare, tcana, klama, cliva, pluta, limna, muvdu}

 ↑

livga
{}
liver
x1 is a/the liver {body-part}
of x2 {cf. rango, betfu}

 ↑

livla
{lil }
fuel
x1 is a fuel/energy-source for powering x2 {cf. nejni, xaksu, jelca}

 ↑

lo'e
{lom }
the typical veridical descriptor: the typical one{s}
who really is{are}
... logji
{loj }
logic
x1 {rules/methods}
is a logic for deducing/concluding/inferring/reasoning to/about x2 {du'u}

 ↑

{also {adjective:}

x1, x2 are logical}; {cf. nibli}

 ↑

lojbo
{lob jbo }
Lojbanic
x1 reflects {Loglandic}/Lojbanic language/culture/nationality/community in aspect x2 {pre-Lojban forms of Loglan {= dzejbo}

 ↑

}
{cf. }

 ↑

loldi
{lol loi }
floor
x1 is a floor/bottom/ground of x2 {floor/level/story of a building/edifice {= setloi}

 ↑

}; {cf. bitmu, drudi, dertu, dizlo, cnita, zbepi, sarji, serti}

 ↑

lorxu
{lor lo'u }
fox
x1 is a fox {bushy-tailed wild dog/canine}
of species/breed x2 {cf. gerku}

 ↑

lubno
{lu'o }
Lebanese
x1 reflects Lebanese culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xrabo}

 ↑

lujvo
{luv jvo }
affix compound
x1 {text}
is a compound predicate word with meaning x2 and arguments x3 built from metaphor x4 {cf. stura, cmavo, gismu, rafsi, smuni}

 ↑

lumci
{lum lu'i }
wash
x1 {agent}
washes/cleanses x2 of soil/contaminant x3 in/with cleaning material{s}
x4 {agentless washing/cleansing {= cuvbi'o, jisybi'o}

 ↑

}; {cf. djacu, jinru, litki, zbabu, jinsa, curve}

 ↑

lunbe
{lub }
bare
x1 is bare/naked/nude;
x1 is without cover/clothes/{protection} {cf. taxfu, bandu}

 ↑

lunra
{lur }
lunar
x1 is Earth's moon {default};
x1 is a major natural satellite/moon of planet x2 {cf. plini, solri, terdi, mluni}

 ↑

lunsa
{lus }
condense
x1 condenses/liquefies on/into x2 at temperature x3, pressure x4;
x1 is dew/condensate on x2 {cf. cilmo, dunja, febvi, runme, bumru}

 ↑

 ↑

mabla
{mal }
derogative
x1 is a derogative connotation/sense of x2 used by x3; x3 derogates/'curses at' x2 in form
x1 {bloody {British sense}

 ↑

, fucking, shit}; {cf. palci, dapma, xlali, zabna, funca, ganti, ganxo, gletu, gutra, kalci, pinca, pinji, plibu, vibna, vlagi, zargu}

 ↑

mabru
{mab }
mammal
x1 is a mammal/'animal'/beast of species x2 {cf. danlu, ladru, tatru, ractu, xanto, xarju}

 ↑

macnu
{cnu }
manual
x1 {event/action/process}
is manual {not automatic}
in function x2 under conditions x3 {cf. zmiku, jitro}

 ↑

makcu
{ma'u }
mature
x1 is mature/ripe/fully-grown/adult in development-quality x2 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. cifnu, ninmu, verba, banro, farvi, nanmu}

 ↑

makfa
{maf }
magic
x1 is magic/supernatural/sorcery/witchcraft/wizardry to x2, performed by person/force/deity x3 {cf. krici, manci}

 ↑

maksi
{mak }
magnet
x1 is magnetic {adjective}
producing magnetic field x2 {cf. dikca, trina, xlura}

 ↑

malsi
{mas }
temple
x1 is a temple/church/sanctuary/synagogue/shrine of religion x2 at location/serving area x3 {x2 may be event of form {... worships/pays/respect to ...}

 ↑

, hence {metaphorically extending to}
monument {= mojmalsi, si'armalsi}

 ↑

}; {cf. cevni, krici, lijda, ritli}

 ↑

mamta
{mam }
mother ; 'mom'
x1 is a mother of x2;
x1 bears/mothers/acts maternally toward x2; {not necessarily biological} {cf. patfu, sovda, rirni, rorci, tarbi, famti, bersa, jbena}

 ↑

manci
{mac }
wonder
x1 feels wonder/awe/marvels about x2 {cf. cinmo, makfa, kucli, spaji, cinri, banli, sisku}

 ↑

manfo
{}
uniform
x1 {object/event}
is uniform/homogeneous in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. prane, curve, ranji, vitno, stodi, dikni, sampu, traji}

 ↑

manku
{man }
dark
x1 is dark/lacking in illumination {cf. blabi, gusni, ctino; use kandi or xekri with colors, ctino}

 ↑

manri
{mar }
reference
x1 is a frame of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x2, with/by rules x3 {
x1 may be object or si'o idea}

 ↑

; {cf. cmavo list ma'i, ckilu, merli, pajni, cimde, jdice, marde}

 ↑

mansa
{}
satisfy
x1 satisfies evaluator x2 in property {ka}

 ↑

/state x3 {cf. pajni}

 ↑

manti
{}
ant
x1 is an ant of species/breed x2 {cf. cinki, jalra}

 ↑

mapku
{map }
cap
x1 is a cap/hat/crown/helmet/piece of headgear {head-top garment}
of material x2 {cf. taxfu, stedu, drudi}

 ↑

mapni
{}
cotton
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of cotton {type of fabric/material} {cf. bukpu}

 ↑

mapti
{mat }
fit ; 'match'
x1 fits/matches/suits/is compatible/appropriate/corresponds to/with x2 in property/aspect x3 {cf. satci, tugni, sarxe, drani, tarmi, ckini, mintu}

 ↑

marbi
{mra }
shelter ; 'harbor'
x1 is a shelter/haven/refuge/retreat/harbor for/protecting x2 from danger/threat x3 {cf. bandu, ckape, snura, drudi, sepli, bitmu, gacri}

 ↑

marce
{ma'e }
vehicle
x1 is a vehicle/mode of transport carrying x2 in/on surface/medium x3, propelled by x4 {cf. klama, matra, bevri, bloti, carce, karce, sabnu, skiji}

 ↑

marde
{mad }
morals
x1 are the ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards of x2 {ind./mass}
about situation x3 {
x1 will {typically}
be an abstract, a rule or rules of behavior; also principles; also conscience {= sezmarde}

 ↑

}; {cf. palci, vrude, lijda, manri, javni, tarti, zekri}

 ↑

margu
{mag }
mercury
x1 is a quantity of/contains/made of mercury/quicksilver; {metaphor: fluid metal; temperature} {cf. jinme}

 ↑

marji
{maj mai }
material ; 'matter'
x1 is material/stuff/matter of type/composition including x2 in shape/form x3 {also {adjective:}

x1 is physical {one sense}

 ↑

/material}; {cf. morna, mucti, nejni, tarmi, dacti}

 ↑

marna
{}
hemp ; 'marijuana'
x1 is a quantity of hemp/marijuana/jute of species/strain x2 {cf. skori, tanko, sigja, xukmi}

 ↑

marxa
{max }
mash
x1 {force}
mashes/crushes/squashes/smashes x2 into pulp/mash/crumbs/deformed mass x3 {cf. daspo, pesxu, zalvi, bapli}

 ↑

masno
{sno }
slow
x1 is slow/sluggish at doing/being/bringing about x2 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. sutra}

 ↑

masti
{ma'i }
month
x1 is x2 months in duration {default is 1 month}
by month standard x3 {this month {= cabma'i}

 ↑

; next month {= bavylamyma'i}

 ↑

; last month {= prulamyma'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. detri, djedi, jeftu, nanca}

 ↑

matci
{}
mat
x1 is a mat/pad/mattress/pallet {flat, soft, dense form}
of material x2 {also mattress = {kicymatci}

 ↑

}; {cf. kicne, tapla, karda, ckana}

 ↑

matli
{}
linen
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of linen/flax {type of fabric/material} {cf. bukpu}

 ↑

matne
{}
butter
x1 is a quantity of/contains butter/oleo/margarine/shortening from source x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is buttery; an edible fat, solid but spreadable at normal temperatures; dairy butter {= ladmatne}

 ↑

}; {cf. grasu, kruji}

 ↑

matra
{}
motor
x1 is a motor/engine, driving/propelling/providing power to x2 {cf. marce, minji, carce}

 ↑

mavji
{mav }
oats
x1 is a quantity of oats {grain}
of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

maxri
{xri }
wheat
x1 is a quantity of wheat {grain}
of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

mebri
{meb }
brow
x1 is a/the brow/forehead {projecting flat/smooth head/body-part}
of x2 {cf. stedu, flira}

 ↑

megdo
{meg }
1E6 ; metric 'mega'
x1 is a million {1
x10**6}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

mei
{mem mei }
cardinal selbri convert number to cardinality selbri;
x1 is the mass formed from set x2 with member{s}
x3 {
x1 is a mass with N components x3 composing set x2; x2 is an n-tuple {x2 is completely specified}
{= selmei for reordered places}

 ↑

;
x1 forms an n-some; x3 {not necessarily a complete enumeration}
are {among the}
members of x2}; {cf. cmima, gunma, cmavo list moi}

 ↑

mekso
{mek me'o }
MEX
x1 {quantifier/expression}
is a mathematical expression interpreted under rules/convention x2 {cf. cmaci, dilcu, fancu, frinu, jalge, namcu, parbi, pilji}

 ↑

melbi
{mel mle }
beautiful
x1 is beautiful/pleasant to x2 in aspect x3 {ka}
by aesthetic standard x4 {also handsome, pretty, gorgeous, cute, comely, graceful {= }

 ↑

}; {cf. pluka, xamgu}

 ↑

meljo
{mej }
Malaysian
x1 reflects Malaysian/Malay culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. baxso, bindo}

 ↑

menli
{men }
mind ; 'mental'
x1 is a mind/intellect/psyche/mentality/{consciousness}
of body x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is mental/psychological/a mental phenomenon; multiple personalities {= so'i menli}

 ↑

}; {cf. besna, morji, mucti, pensi, sanji, xanri, sevzi, xadni}

 ↑

mensi
{mes me'i }
sister
x1 is a sister of/sororal to x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent{s}
x3; {not necessarily biological} {cf. bruna, tunba, tamne, famti}

 ↑

mentu
{met me'u }
minute
x1 is x2 minutes in duration {default is 1 minute}
by standard x3 {cf. junla, cacra, snidu, tcika}

 ↑

merko
{mer }
American
x1 pertains to USA/American culture/nationality/dialect in aspect x2 {cf. brito, bemro, ketco, xispo, glico}

 ↑

merli
{mre }
measure
x1 {agent}
measures/evaluates x2 {quantity}
as x3 units on scale x4 {si'o}

 ↑

, with accuracy x5 {cf. kancu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, ckilu, gradu, satci, centi, cimde, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, kramu, litce, manri, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

mexno
{mex }
Mexican
x1 reflects Mexican culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xispo, bemro, spano}

 ↑

mi
{mib }
me pro-sumti: me/we the speaker{s}

 ↑

/author{s}

 ↑

; identified by self-vocative {cf. sevzi}

 ↑

midju
{mij }
middle
x1 is in/at the middle/center/midpoint/{is a focus}
of x2; {adjective:}

x1 is central {cf. lanxe, jbini, nutli, snuji, milxe, denmi, ralju}

 ↑

mifra
{mif }
code ; 'cipher'
x1 is encoded/cipher text of plain-text x2 by code/coding system x3;
x1 is in code; x3 is a cod {code {= termifra}

 ↑

}; {cf. mipri, lerfu, sinxa}

 ↑

mikce
{mic }
doctor ; 'medic'
x1 doctors/treats/nurses/{cures}/is physician/midwife to x2 for ailment x3 by treatment/cure x4 {also medic; {adjective:}

x1, x4 is medical; x2 is a patient of
x1 {= selmikce for reordered places}
; x2 is treated by
x1 person/x4 treatment/method; successfully cure transitive {= sadmikce, sadvelmikce}

 ↑

, intransitve {= sadyselmikce, ka'orbi'o to not imply an external agent/process, though the
x1 and x4 of mikce may be self/internal}

 ↑

; treatment {= vermikce}

 ↑

}; {cf. bilma, kanro, spita}

 ↑

mikri
{mik }
1E-6 ; metric 'micro'
x1 is a millionth {1
x10**-6}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

milti
{mil }
.001 ; metric 'milli'
x1 is a thousandth {1/1000; 1
x10**-3}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

milxe
{mli }
mild
x1 is mild/non-extreme/gentle/middling/somewhat in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

;
x1 is not very x2 {cf. mutce, traji, kandi, ruble, midju, nutli, ralci, traji}

 ↑

minde
{mid mi'e }
command
x1 issues commands/orders to x2 for result x3 {event/state}
to happen; x3 is commanded to occur {also:
x1 orders/sets/{triggers}
x2 to do/bring about x3;
x1 is a commander; commanded {= termi'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. lacri, te bende, jatna, ralju, jitro, turni, tinbe}

 ↑

minji
{mi'i }
machine
x1 is a machine for use/function x2; {automated apparatus, without direct function control} {also machinery/mechanism; a machine is initiated/triggered by an agent/force, but thereafter performs its function automatically; if self-directed, {a minji is an}
entity {= zukte}

 ↑

}; {cf. cabra, matra, tutci, zukte, pilno, skami}

 ↑

minli
{}
mile
x1 is x2 {defaults 1}
long local distance unit{s}
{non-metric}, x3 subunits, standard x4 {additional subunit places may be added as x5, x6, ...}

 ↑

; {cf. mitre, kilto, clani, ganra, condi, rotsu, rupnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu}

 ↑

minra
{mir }
reflect ; 'mirror'
x1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x2 {object/radiation}
to observer/point x3 as x4; x2 bounces on
x1 {also:
x1 is a mirror/reflector}; {x2 may be light, lu'e of an imaged object; x4 may be image or echo or the same as x2 if physical object; x3 may be a path for a bounced object; ka is reflection}; {cf. catlu, viska, lenjo, pensi}

 ↑

mintu
{mit mi'u }
same ; 'identical'
x1 is the same/identical thing as x2 by standard x3; {
x1 and x2 interchangeable}

 ↑

{cf. panra, satci, mapti, simsa, drata, dunli, cmavo list du - which has no standard place, simxu}

 ↑

mipri
{mip }
secret
x1 keeps x2 secret/hidden from x3 by method x4; x2 is a secret;
x1 hides/conceals x2 {intransitive hidden/secret, without an agent {= selcri or nalterju'o}

 ↑

; secret {= selmipri}

 ↑

}; {cf. stace, mifra, sivni, djuno, cirko, jarco}

 ↑

mirli
{}
deer
x1 is a deer/elk/moose/{hart/stag/doe}
of species/breed x2 {cf. }

 ↑

misno
{mis mi'o }
famous
x1 {person/object/event}
is famous/renowned/is a celebrity among community of persons x2 {mass}

 ↑

{also celebrated/well-known; {derogative meanings:}
notorious/infamous {= malmi'o; these could also be expressed using the referenced words}

 ↑

}; {cf. se sinma, banli}

 ↑

misro
{}
Egyptian ; 'Mizraim'
x1 reflects Egyptian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

mitre
{tre }
meter
x1 is x2 meter{s}
{metric}
in length {default is 1}
measured in direction x3 by standard x4 {cf. kilto, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, gutci, litce, megdo, mikri, milti, minli, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

mixre
{mix xre }
mixture
x1 {mass}
is a mixture/blend/colloid/commingling with ingredients including x2 {x2 mingles/mixes/blends into
x1; x2 is in
x1, an ingredient/part/component/element of
x1 {= selxre for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. salta, te runta, stasu, jicla, sanso}

 ↑

mlana
{mla }
side ; 'lateral'
x1 is to the side of/lateral to x2 and facing x3 from point of view/in-frame-of-reference x4 {cf. crane, trixe, pritu, zunle which differ in that the direction of facing is the front and not the lateral side. The x4 of mlana may be either the front, or back side of x2, korbi}

 ↑

mlatu
{lat }
cat
x1 is a cat/{puss/pussy/kitten}
{feline animal}
of species/breed x2; {adjective:}

x1 is feline {cf. cinfo, tirxu, gerku}

 ↑

mleca
{mec me'a }
less
x1 is less than x2 in property/quantity x3 {ka/ni}
by amount x4 {also negative {= nonme'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list me'a, cmavo list su'o, jdika, zmadu, traji}

 ↑

mledi
{led }
mold
x1 is a mold/fungus/mushrooms/truffles of species/strain x2 parasitic/growing on x3 {cf. clika}

 ↑

mluni
{lun }
satellite ; 'moon'
x1 is a satellite/moon orbiting x2 with characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4 {cf. plini, solri, lunra}

 ↑

mo'a
{mob }
too few digit/number: too few; subjective mo'i
{mov }
space motion mark motions in space-time moi
{mom moi }
ordinal selbri convert number to ordinal selbri;
x1 is {n}

 ↑

th member of set x2 ordered by rule x3 {x2 is a completely specified set}

 ↑

mokca
{moc }
point ; 'moment'
x1 is a point/instant/moment {0-dimensional shape/form}
in/on/at time/place x2 {
x1 is dimensionless}; {cf. jipno, jganu, linji, stuzi, tcika}

 ↑

moklu
{mol mo'u }
mouth ; 'oral'
x1 is a/the mouth/oral cavity {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: entrance/intake for consumption}

 ↑

{{adjective:}

x1 is oral}; {cf. ctebi, denci, tance}

 ↑

molki
{mlo }
mill
x1 is a mill/foundry/industrial plant/{assembly line}
performing process x2 {{unlike fanri,}
need not produce a product; grain mill {= grumlo}

 ↑

, grinding mill {= zalmlo, zalmlotci, zalmloca'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. gasta, gurni, tirse, fanri, zalvi}

 ↑

molro
{mo'o }
mole
x1 is x2 mole{s}
{metric}
in substance {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. , centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

morji
{moj mo'i }
remember ; 'memory'
x1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact{s}

 ↑

/memory x2 {du'u}
about subject x3 {cf. cmavo list ba'anai, menli, pensi, sanji, djuno, notci}

 ↑

morko
{mor }
Moroccan
x1 reflects Moroccan culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

morna
{mon mo'a }
pattern ; 'form'
x1 is/reflects/represents a pattern of forms/events x2 arranged according to structure x3 {x3 is a {model}
for
x1 {= termontai}

 ↑

; image {= gusmo'a, nenmo'a, dairmo'a, selylenmo'a, selminmo'a, velminmo'a, but also all of these -tai instead of -mo'a for the ideal}

 ↑

}; {cf. ciste, ganzu, marji, slilu, stura, tarmi, boxna, cimde, gidva, jimpe, rilti}

 ↑

morsi
{mro }
dead ; 'mort-'
x1 is dead/has ceased to be alive {die/mortal {= mrobi'o, co'urji'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. jmive, catra, betri}

 ↑

mosra
{mos }
friction ; 'rub'
x1 is friction {force opposing motion}
due to contact/rubbing between x2 and x3; {fe}
x2 rubs x {also x2 scrubs/wipes/brushes {against}
x3 {= seltermosra}

 ↑

; non-agentive rub {= termosra}

 ↑

}; {cf. sakli, sraku, jabre, satre, guska, pencu, spali}

 ↑

mraji
{}
rye
x1 is a quantity of rye {grain}
of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

mrilu
{mri }
mail
x1 mails/posts {transfer via intermediary service}
x2 to x3 from x4 by carrier/network/system x {also x4 post office, mailbox}; {cf. benji {in which the medium need not be a 3rd party service/system, and x2 need not consist of discrete units}, notci, xatra, tcana}

 ↑

mruli
{mru }
hammer
x1 {tool}
is a hammer for/hammers x2 {target}
consisting of weight/head x3 propelled by x4 {cf. tutci}

 ↑

mu
{mum }
5 digit/number: 5 {digit}

 ↑

mu'e
{muf }
point-event abstract abstractor: achievement {event}
abstractor;
x1 is the event-as-a-point/achievement of {bridi} mucti
{mut }
immaterial
x1 is immaterial/not physical/without material form {cf. marji, menli, pruxi, sidbo}

 ↑

mudri
{mud }
wood ; 'lumber'
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains wood/lumber from tree{s}
of type/species x2 {cf. tricu, stani}

 ↑

mukti
{muk mu'i }
motive
x1 {action/event/state}
motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event x2, per volition of x3 {also; x3 is motivated to bring about result/goal/objective x2 by
x1 {= termu'i for reordered places}

 ↑

; {note that 'under conditions' BAI may apply and be appropriately added to the main predicate level or within the x2 action level}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list mu'i, nibli, te zukte - generally better for 'goal', se jalge, krinu, rinka, ciksi, djica, xlura}

 ↑

mulno
{mul mu'o }
complete
x1 {event}
is complete/done/finished;
x1 {object}
has become whole in property x2 by standard x {also perfected, entirety; {adverb/adjective:}
entire, total, integral, fully, totally, wholly, completely, entirely}; {cf. fanmo, culno, pagbu, xadba, prane, jalge, sumji, munje, sisti, xadni}

 ↑

munje
{muj mu'e }
universe
x1 is a universe/cosmos {complete and ordered entirety}
of domain/sphere x2 defined by rules x3 {also world; a universe is a kind of system, one which comprehensively encompasses its domain; e.g. 'universe of discourse', or 'world of birds'; x3 are the rules/defining principles which distinguish the universe from other universes, or from non-universe}; {cf. ciste, plini, kensa, mulno}

 ↑

mupli
{mup }
example
x1 is an example/sample/specimen/instance/case/illustration of common property{s}
x2 of set x3 {cf. cmavo list mu'u, pixra}

 ↑

murse
{}
glimmering
x1 is the {astronomical}
twilight/dawn/dusk/half-light/glimmering of day x2 at location x3 {morning twilight, dawn {= cermurse}

 ↑

; evening twilight, dusk {= vacmurse}

 ↑

}; {cf. cerni, kandi, vanci}

 ↑

murta
{mur mu'a }
curtain
x1 is a curtain/blinds/drapes for covering/obscuring aperture x2, and made of material x3 {cf. canko, vorme}

 ↑

muslo
{mus }
Islamic
x1 pertains to the Islamic/Moslem/Koranic {Quranic}
culture/religion/nation in aspect x2 {cf. jegvo, lijda}

 ↑

mutce
{tce }
much
x1 is much/extreme in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

, towards x3 extreme/direction;
x1 is, in x2, very x3 {also very, pretty, a lot, immoderate/immoderately, intense, quite, extremely}; {cf. milxe, traji, banli, carmi, nutli, traji}

 ↑

muvdu
{muv mu'u }
move
x1 {object}
moves to destination/receiver x2 {away}
from origin x3 over path/route x4 {also mobile {= co'ermu'u, for the non-specific opposite of immobile}

 ↑

; after a muvdu, object is alienated from/no longer at origin {unless physically returned there, per litru or slilu}

 ↑

; agentive move {= muvgau, muvzu'e}

 ↑

, self-propelled {= sezmu'u}

 ↑

, motion of a part of the object {= pagmu'u}

 ↑

, having a moving part {= muvypau, muvyselpau}

 ↑

; apparent motion {= mlumu'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. rinci, klama {which differs in that the means of motion is explicit}

 ↑

, litru, cliva, fatri; dunda, benji for agentive movement that does not necessarily imply alienation from origin, preja for similar movement with no agent implied, bevri, vimcu}

 ↑

muzga
{muz }
museum
x1 is a museum for preserving {and possibly exhibiting}
x2 at location x3 {cf. citri}

 ↑

na
{nar }
bridi negator bridi contradictory negator; scope is an entire bridi; logically negates in some cmavo compound
 ↑

na'e
{nal }
scalar contrary contrary scalar negator: other than ...; not ...; a scale or set is implied

 ↑

nabmi
{nam }
problem
x1 {event/state}
is a problem to/encountered by x2 in situation/task/inquiry x3 {also:
x1 requires consideration by x2}; {cf. preti, danfu, ciksi, jijnu, jinvi, nandu, pensi, sidbo, spuda}

 ↑

nakni
{nak }
male ; 'masculine'
x1 is a male/buck of species x2 evidencing masculine trait{s}
x3 {ka}

 ↑

;
x1 is masculine {cf. fetsi, bersa}

 ↑

nalci
{na'i }
wing
x1 is a/the wing {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: lateral supporting surface} {cf. cipni, pimlu, rebla}

 ↑

namcu
{nac na'u }
number
x1 {li}
is a number/quantifier/digit/value/figure {noun}; refers to the value and not the symbo {cf. lerfu, mekso, klani}

 ↑

nanba
{nab }
bread
x1 is a quantity of/containing bread {leavened or unleavened}
made from grains x2 {cf. gurni, panlo, toknu}

 ↑

nanca
{na'a }
year
x1 is x2 years in duration {default is 1 year}
by standard x3; {adjective:}

x1 is annual {this year {= cabna'a}

 ↑

; next year {= bavlamna'a}

 ↑

; last year {= prulamna'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. detri, djedi, jeftu, masti}

 ↑

nandu
{nad }
difficult ; 'hard'
x1 is difficult/hard/challenging for x2 under conditions x3;
x1 challenges {non-agentive}
x2 {cf. frili, nabmi, jdari, talsa, tinsa}

 ↑

nanla
{}
boy ; 'lad'
x1 is a boy/lad {young male person}
of age x2 immature by standard x3 {word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; {use verba}

 ↑

}; {cf. nixli, verba, nanmu, bersa}

 ↑

nanmu
{nau }
man
x1 is a man/men;
x1 is a male humanoid person {not necessarily adult} {word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; {use remna or prenu}

 ↑

}; {cf. ninmu, remna, prenu, makcu, nanla, bersa}

 ↑

nanvi
{nav }
1E-9 ; metric 'nano'
x1 is a billionth/thousand-millionth {1
x10**-9}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

narge
{nag }
nut
x1 is a nut {body-part: hard-shelled fruit}
from plant/species x2 with shell x3 and kernel x4 {cf. grute, stagi, jbari}

 ↑

narju
{naj }
orange
x1 is orange {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, pelxu, solji}

 ↑

natfe
{naf na'e }
deny
x1 {du'u}
contradicts/denies/refutes/negates x2 {du'u}
under rules/logic x3 {also exception: nafmupli; agentive contradict/deny: nafxu'a or nalselxu'a}; {cf. nibli, tugni, zanru, xusra}

 ↑

natmi
{nat nai }
nation
x1 is a nation/ethnic group of peoples x2; {people sharing a history/culture} {cf. jecta, kulnu, lanzu, gugde, bangu, cecmu}

 ↑

navni
{}
neon
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of inert gas of type x2 {neon/argon/radon/xenon} {default neon}
{cf. }

 ↑

naxle
{nax xle }
canal
x1 is a canal/channel to x2 from x3 with route x4 {x2/x3 may be unordered}; {cf. pluta, rirxe, klaji, dargu}

 ↑

nazbi
{naz zbi }
nose ; 'nasal'
x1 is the nose {body-part}
of x2 with nostril{s}

 ↑

/nasal passage{s}
x3; {metaphor: protrusion} {also {adjective:}
nasal}; {cf. degji, panci, sumne, tance}

 ↑

nejni
{nen }
energy
x1 is energy of type x2 in form x3 {ray/beam {= nenli'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. marji, tarmi, kantu, lazni, livla}

 ↑

nelci
{nel nei }
fond ; 'likes'
x1 is fond of/likes/has a taste for x2 {object/state}

 ↑

{cf. cinmo, djica, pluka, prami, rigni, sinma, trina, xebni, cuxna, pendo}

 ↑

nenri
{ner ne'i }
in ; 'inner'
x1 is in/inside/within x2;
x1 is on the inside/interior of x2 {totally within the bounds of x2} {indicates total containment}; {cf. se vasru {for containment that need not be total}

 ↑

, jbini, zvati, cpana, sruri, senta, snuji, bartu, diklo, jibni, jinru, setca}

 ↑

ni
{nil }
amount abstract abstractor: quantity/amount abstractor;
x1 is quantity/amount of {bridi}
measured on scale x2 nibli
{nib ni'i }
necessitate
x1 logically necessitates/entails/implies action/event/state x2 under rules/logic system x3 {cf. natfe, rinka, mukti, krinu, cmavo list ni'i, jalge, logji}

 ↑

nicte
{cte }
night
x1 is a nighttime of day x2 at location x3; {adjective:}

x1 is at night/nocturnal {tonight {= cabycte}

 ↑

; tomorrow night {= bavlamcte, even when tonight is still in the future}

 ↑

; last night {= prulamcte}

 ↑

}; {cf. donri, djedi, tcika}

 ↑

nikle
{nik }
nickel
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of nickel/other metal resistant to oxidation {cf. jinme}

 ↑

nilce
{ni'e }
furniture
x1 {furniture items}
furnishes x2 {location}
serving purpose/function x3 {cf. ckana, jubme, sfofa, stizu, dacru}

 ↑

nimre
{}
citrus ; 'lime'
x1 is a quantity of citrus {fruit/tree, etc.}
of species/strain x2 {cf. grute, slari, slami, xukmi}

 ↑

ninmu
{nim ni'u }
woman ; 'women'
x1 is a woman/women;
x1 is a female humanoid person {not necessarily adult} {word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; {use remna or prenu}

 ↑

}; {cf. nanmu, remna, prenu, makcu, nixli}

 ↑

nirna
{nir }
nerve
x1 is a nerve/neuron {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: information/control network connection} {also {adjective:}

x1 is neural}; {cf. ve benji}

 ↑

nitcu
{tcu }
need
x1 needs/requires/is dependent on/{wants}
necessity x2 for purpose/action/stage of process x3 {cf. banzu, cidja, claxu, pindi, xebni, sarcu, lacri, djica, taske, xagji}

 ↑

nivji
{niv }
knit
x1 {agent}
knits x2 {cloth/object}
from yarn/thread x3 {cf. cilta, fenso, jivbu, pijne}

 ↑

nixli
{nix xli }
girl
x1 is a girl {young female person}
of age x2 immature by standard x3 {word dispreferred in metaphor/example as sexist; {use verba}

 ↑

}; {cf. nanla, verba, ninmu}

 ↑

no
{non }
0 digit/number: 0 {digit}

 ↑

{nothing {= nomei, but also nozu'i}

 ↑

no'e
{nor no'e }
scalar midpoint not midpoint scalar negator: neutral point between je'a and to'e; "not really" {cf. nutli, midju, milxe, cmavo list na'e, to'e}

 ↑

nobli
{nol no'i }
noble
x1 is noble/aristocratic/elite/high-born/titled in/under culture/society/standard x2 {also upper-class; high/low, upper/lower are poor Lojban metaphors; note x2 standard applies when the title/nobility is not recognized culture/society wide; this would include self-assumed titles}; {cf. banli}

 ↑

notci
{not noi }
message ; 'note'
x1 is a message/notice/memorandum about subject x2 from author x3 to intended audience x4 {emphasis on brevity, single or identifiable subject {contrast with xatra: the emphasis in notci is on the single or cohesively focused subject, while the audience is less defined - indeed only an 'intended' audience. xatra need not have a single or focussed subject - its corresponding place is for 'content'}

 ↑

; reminder/memo/note {= mojnoi}

 ↑

}; {cf. xatra, nuzba, mrilu, morji, xatra}

 ↑

nu
{nun }
event abstract abstractor: generalized event abstractor;
x1 is state/process/achievement/activity of {bridi} nu'o
{nu'o }
can but has not modal aspect: can but has not; unrealized potential {cf. kakne}

 ↑

nukni
{nuk }
magenta ; 'fuchsin'
x1 is magenta/fuchsia/purplish-red {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, xunre, zirpu}

 ↑

nupre
{nup nu'e }
promise
x1 {agent}
promises/commits/assures/threatens x2 {event/state}
to x3 {beneficiary/victim} {cf. kajde, xusra}

 ↑

nurma
{num }
rural
x1 is a rural/rustic/pastoral area of x2;
x1 is in the country {cf. jarbu, rarna, tcadu, cange}

 ↑

nutli
{nul nu'i }
neutral
x1 is neutral/not taking sides/medial/not towards any extreme on scale/in dissension x2 {also x2 dispute/struggle {though x2 is not limited to disagreements, which is merely one manifestation of scalar or distributed values in which there is a medial position}

{cf. midju, lanxe, milxe, mutce, cmavo list no'e}

 ↑

nuzba
{nuz }
news
x1 {du'u}
is news/tidings/new information about subject x2 from source x3, to observer x4 {cf. cnino, notci}

 ↑

pa
{pav }
1 digit/number: 1 {digit}

 ↑

pacna
{pa'a }
hope
x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2 {event}

expected likelihood x3 {0-1}

x1 hopes that x2 happens {also:
x1 is hopeful of x2; x2 will hopefully occur, as hoped for by
x1; the value of x3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to
x1, and is the basic determinant of whether pacna means 'hope' or 'wish' or 'expect': hoping for objects/states with negligible expectation is "wishing"; if the state is plausibly likely, it is "hoping"; when the probability is subjectively near 1, the attitude is described as "expecting"; the value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers {li piso'u to li piro}

wish {= sotpa'a}

hope {= sorpa'a}

expect {= sojypa'a}

; {cf. djica}

 ↑

pagbu
{pag pau }
part
x1 is a part/component/piece/portion/segment of x2 {where x2 is a whole/mass}; x2 is partly
x1 {partly {= selpau}
{cf. cmavo list pa'u, mulno, xadba, spisa, gunma, rafsi}

 ↑

pagre
{gre }
pass through
x1 passes through/penetrates barrier/medium/portal x2 to destination side x3 from origin side x {passing through in both directions {= rolfargre, pagre ... .i so'ivo'ivo'u {and vice versa}

 ↑

}

 ↑

}; {cf. bitmu, denci, ganlo, kalri, vorme, pluta, canko, ragve}

 ↑

pajni
{pai }
judge
x1 judges/referees/arbitrates/is a judge determining/deciding matter x2 {abstract}

 ↑

{x2 includes jei = rule {jetpai}

 ↑

, ni = estimate {lairpai}

 ↑

, ka = evaluate {kairpai or vampai}

 ↑

, or nu = referee/arbitrate {faurpai}

 ↑

; single events of judging including specific decisions/judgements {= paidji, jetpaidji, lairpaidji, kairpaidji, vampaidji, faurpaidji}

 ↑

; jury {= pairkamni}

 ↑

, serve on a jury {= kamnypai, as part of mass
x1}

 ↑

}; {cf. cuxna, jdice, vajni, cipra, zekri, manri, mansa}

 ↑

palci
{pac }
evil
x1 is evil/depraved/wicked {morally bad}
by standard x2 {cf. zekri, vrude, xlali, marde, mabla}

 ↑

palku
{pak }
pants
x1 are pants/trousers/slacks/leggings {legged garment}
of material x2 {cf. taxfu, pastu, skaci}

 ↑

palne
{}
tray ; 'pan, platter'
x1 is a tray/platter/flat container {pan/sheet/griddle}
of contents x2, and made of material x3 {also pallet, when used for carrying rather than support on the ground; a tray is flat-bottomed and shallow or without a rim, and is generally portable}; {cf. tansi, patxu, palta, ckana}

 ↑

palta
{}
plate ; 'platter'
x1 is a plate/dish/platter/saucer {flat/mildly concave food service bed}
made of material x2 {cf. ckana, palne, kabri, tansi, ckana}

 ↑

pambe
{}
pump
x1 is a pump/injector {tool/apparatus}
pumping/inserting fluid x2 to x3 from x4 by means x5 {x2 fluid may be liquid or gas; x5 may be a force; a pump generally causes a pressure gradient, such that x3 is a place of lower pressure, x4 a place of higher pressure}; {cf. gapci, litki, rinci; metaphorical use of fepri for gas, risna for liquid, rinci, tutci}

 ↑

panci
{pan }
odor ; 'fragrance'
x1 is an odor/fragrance/scent/smell emitted by x2 and detected by observer/sensor x3 {an undetected emitter is odorless to the observer}; {cf. nazbi, sumne, cpina}

 ↑

pandi
{pad }
punctuate
x1 {agent}
punctuates x2 {expression}
with symbol/word x3 with syntactic/semantic effect x4 {cf. lerfu, basna, denpa}

 ↑

panje
{}
sponge
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sponge/porous material {also metaphorically used for coral, Swiss cheese}; {cf. cokcu for a generalized absorbant}

 ↑

panka
{}
park
x1 is a park/land reserve managed by community/polity/company x2 for purpose x3 {cf. sorcu, zdile, klaji, purdi}

 ↑

panlo
{pa'o }
slice
x1 is a slice {thin flat portion}
of x2 {mass}

 ↑

{cf. nanba}

 ↑

panpi
{pap }
peace
x1 is at peace with x2 {cf. jamna; use sarxe, smaji, tugni for most metaphorical extensions, cilce, jamna}

 ↑

panra
{}
parallel
x1 parallels x2 differing only in property x3 {ka; jo'u/fa'u term}
by standard/geometry x4 {also:
x1 is parallel to x2, x3 is the only difference between
x1 and x2 {= terpanra for reordered places}

 ↑

;
x1 and x2 are alike/similar/{congruent}; a parallel involves extreme close similarity/correspondence across the entirety of the things being compared, generally involving multiple properties, with focus placed on one or a small number of differences}; {cf. cmavo list pa'a, mintu, simsa, girzu, vrici}

 ↑

pante
{pat }
protest
x1 protests/objects to/complains about x2 {event/state}
to audience x3 with action x4 {x4 is an event or tu'a quotation}
{cf. , xarnu}

 ↑

panzi
{paz }
offspring
x1 is a {biological}
offspring/child/kid/hybrid of parent{s}
x2; {adjective:}

x1 is filial {cf. grute, verba, bersa, tixnu, se rorci, patfu}

 ↑

papri
{}
page ; 'paper'
x1 is a {physical}
page/leaf of book/document/bound mass of pages x2 {page as a quantity of text {= paprysfe, paprysfelai}

 ↑

}; {cf. karni, pelji, prina, xatra, vreji, pezli, cukta, ciska}

 ↑

parbi
{pab }
ratio ; 'rate'
x1 {me'o, fraction}
is a ratio/rate of x2 {quantity}
with respect to x3 {quantity}

 ↑

, {x2:x3} {also
x1 fraction/proportion/quotient; x2 dividend/numerator; x3 divisor/denominator}; {cf. frinu, dilcu, mekso}

 ↑

pastu
{pas }
robe ; 'tunic'
x1 is a robe/tunic/gown/cloak/dress/{coveralls}
{a long/full body garment}
of material x2 {also coveralls {= paspalku}

 ↑

}; {cf. kosta, taxfu, palku}

 ↑

patfu
{paf pa'u }
father ; 'pop, padre'
x1 is a father of x2;
x1 begets/sires/acts paternal towards x2; {not necessarily biological} {cf. mamta, rirni, rorci, tarbi, dzena, famti, panzi, bersa, sovda}

 ↑

patlu
{}
potato
x1 is a potato {an edible tuber}
of variety/cultivar x2 {use samcu for starchy/tuberous roots that do not reproduce from eyes of tuber}

 ↑

; {cf. genja, jalna, samcu}

 ↑

patxu
{pax }
pot
x1 is a pot/kettle/urn/tub/sink, a deep container for contents x2, of material/properties x3 {cf. tansi, palne for depth; baktu, botpi for open/lidded}

 ↑

pe'a
{pev }
figurative marks figurative usage {non-literal}
speech/text as a rafsi {in figurative speech, metaphors may arbitrarily ignore omitted place structures} pelji
{ple }
paper ; 'page'
x1 is paper from source x2 {sheet of paper {= plekarda if shape is important, plebo'o}

 ↑

}; {cf. karni, papri, prina}

 ↑

pelxu
{pel }
yellow
x1 is yellow/golden {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, narju, solji}

 ↑

pemci
{pem }
poem
x1 is a poem/verse about plot/theme/subject/pattern x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4 {x2 may be a convention rather than a subject}; {cf. prosa, rimni, rilti, finti, lisri, sanga}

 ↑

penbi
{peb }
pen
x1 is a pen using ink x2 applied by process x3 {cf. ciska, pinsi, xinmo, pimlu}

 ↑

pencu
{pec pe'u }
touch
x1 {agent}
touches x2 with x3 {a locus on
x1 or an instrument}
at x4 {a locus on x2} {cf. ganse, darxi, jgari, penmi, jorne, satre, mosra, zgana}

 ↑

pendo
{ped pe'o }
friend
x1 is/acts as a friend of/to x2 {experiencer}

 ↑

; x2 befriends
x1 {cf. bradi, xendo, nelci, prami, bradi}

 ↑

penmi
{pen pe'i }
meet
x1 meets/encounters x2 at/in location x3 {cf. jorne, jikca, pencu}

 ↑

pensi
{pes pei }
think ; 'pensive'
x1 thinks/considers/cogitates/reasons/is pensive about/reflects upon subject/concept x2 {also:
x1 is thoughtful {one sense}

 ↑

; x2 is mental {one sense}

 ↑

/intellectual {one sense}
{= selpau}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list pe'i, jijnu, menli, morji, sidbo, jinvi, se nabmi, minra, lanli, besna, saske, skami}

 ↑

perli
{per }
pear
x1 is a pear {fruit}
of species/strain x2 {cf. grute}

 ↑

pesxu
{pex }
paste
x1 is paste/pulp/dough/mash/mud/slurry {soft, smooth-textured, moist solid}
of composition x2 {x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification}; {cf. marxa, kliti, tarla}

 ↑

petso
{pet }
1E15 ; metric 'peta'
x1 is 1
x10**15 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

pezli
{pez }
leaf
x1 is a leaf of plant x2;
x1 is foliage of x2 {cf. tricu, papri, spati}

 ↑

pi
{piz }
decimal point digit/number: base point; default decimal pi'u
{piv }
cross product non-logical connective: cross product; Cartesian product of sets picti
{pic }
1E-12 ; metric 'pico'
x1 is a trillionth {1
x10**-12}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

pijne
{}
pin
x1 is a pin/peg {needle-shaped tool}
for fastening to/piercing x2, of material/properties x3 {cf. jesni, nivji, fenso, dinko, tutci}

 ↑

pikci
{}
beg ; 'supplicate'
x1 begs/pleads/supplicates/entreats/implores/beseeches/prays {asks with humility}
x2 for x3 {also importune, petition, plea, solicit; x2 benefactor, patron; x3 boon, favor, gift, alms}
{cf. cpedu which is more general as to manner, pindi}

 ↑

pikta
{}
ticket
x1 is a ticket entitling x2 to entitlement/privilege x3 {event/state}
under conditions x4 {cf. jaspu}

 ↑

pilji
{pi'i }
multiply ; 'multiply'
x1 is the product/total/result of factors/multiplicands {x2 and x3}
x2 multiplied by x3 {cf. mekso, sumji, rapli, jalge}

 ↑

pilka
{pil pi'a }
crust ; 'peel'
x1 is a crust/rind/peel/skin/hide/outer cover of x2 {cf. grute, calku, skapi {pilka as a general term includes skapi}

 ↑

, gacri}

 ↑

pilno
{pli }
use ; 'employ'
x1 uses/employs x2 {tool, apparatus, machine, agent, acting entity, material}
for purpose x3 {also utilize; x2 is useful/used productively by
x1 to do x3 {= selpli for reordered places}

 ↑

; hire/employ {= le'ipli, le'irplicu'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. tutci, cabra, minji, gasnu, zukte for x2, cmavo list pi'o, sazri, jibri}

 ↑

pimlu
{pim pi'u }
feather ; 'plume'
x1 is a/the feather/plume{s}

 ↑

/plumage {body-part}
of animal/species x2 {cf. cipni, nalci, rebla, kerfa, penbi}

 ↑

pinca
{}
urine ; 'piss'
x1 is a/the urine/piss/pee of x2 {cf. vikmi, xasne, kalci, mabla, festi}

 ↑

pindi
{pid }
poor ; 'indigent'
x1 is poor/indigent/scanty/impoverished/lacking in goods/possessions/property x2 {cf. ricfu, claxu, nitcu, pikci}

 ↑

pinfu
{pif }
prisoner ; 'captive'
x1 is a prisoner/captive of x2, restrained/held/confined by means/force x3 {cf. zifre, kavbu, rinju, ralte, fanta, cilce}

 ↑

pinji
{}
penis
x1 is a/the clitoris/penis {projecting reproductive organ; body-part}
of x2 {normally context eliminates need for specificity; otherwise: penis {= nakpinji}

 ↑

, clitoris {= fetpinji}

 ↑

}; {cf. cinse, gletu, vibna, plibu, vlagi, mabla, ganti}

 ↑

pinka
{pik }
comment
x1 {text}
is a comment/remark/observation about subject x2 expressed by x3 to audience x4 {also: x3 comments/remarks/says
x1 about x2 {= terselpinka for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. jinvi, cusku, zgana, lanli, bacru, ciska}

 ↑

pinsi
{pis }
pencil
x1 is a pencil/crayon/stylus applying lead/marking material x2, frame/support {of material}
x3 {also writing brush;
x1 stimulates substrate medium x2 to display marks}; {cf. ciska, penbi {unlike the English equivalents, pinsi is the more general term over penbi}

 ↑

, burcu, bakri}

 ↑

pinta
{pin }
level ; 'horizontal'
x1 is flat/level/horizontal in gravity/frame of reference x2 {cf. sraji, plita, xutla}

 ↑

pinxe
{pix }
drink
x1 {agent}
drinks/imbibes beverage/drink/liquid refreshment x2 from/out-of container/source x3 {cf. cidja, citka, taske, tunlo, xaksu, barja, birje}

 ↑

pipno
{pi'o }
piano
x1 is a piano/harpsichord/synthesizer/organ; a keyboard musical instrument {cf. zgike}

 ↑

pixra
{pir xra }
picture
x1 is a picture/illustration representing/showing x2, made by artist x3 in media x4 {also {adjective:}

x1 is pictorial/illustrative; drawing {= selpirci'a}

 ↑

,
x1 draws x2 {= xraci'a/pirci'a}

 ↑

, image {= xratai}

 ↑

, photo {= kacmyxra}

 ↑

, take a photo {= kacmyterxra, kacmyxragau, kacmyxrazu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. ciska, cinta, prina, mupli, barna, skina}

 ↑

plana
{}
plump
x1 is plump/fat/obese {excessively thick/bulbous/swollen}
by standard x2 {cf. cinla, rotsu, barda, punli, grasu}

 ↑

platu
{pla }
plan ; 'plot'
x1 {agent}
plans/designs/plots plan/arrangement/plot/{schematic}
x2 for state/process x3 {also invents/organizes; x2 design, scheme; the structure or layout of an object would be represented as a state in x3}; {cf. cartu}

 ↑

pleji
{lej le'i }
pay
x1 pays/compensates/remunerates/{rewards}
payment x2 to recipient/payee x3 for goods/services x {also x4 commodities; x4 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= posle'i, po'ervelyle'i for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

; rent {= jerle'i, le'irjbera}

 ↑

}; {cf. canja, cnemu, friti, kargu, vecnu, jdima, prali, jerna, sfasa, dunda, jinga, dapma; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, cirko, dirba}

 ↑

plibu
{pib }
pubic
x1 is a/the pubic area/external genitalia {body-part}
of x2 {cf. cinse, gletu, pinji, vibna, vlagi, ganti, mabla}

 ↑

plini
{}
planet
x1 is a planet revolving around x2 with planetary characteristics x3, orbital parameters x4 {cf. lunra, mluni, terdi, solri, munje}

 ↑

plipe
{pip pi'e }
leap
x1 {agent/object}
leaps/jumps/springs/bounds to x2 from x3 reaching height x4 propelled by x5 {place structure parallels klama; hence x4 may be a route-like expression}; {cf. bajra, stapa, cpare, lafti}

 ↑

plise
{}
apple
x1 is an apple {fruit}
of species/strain x2 {cf. grute}

 ↑

plita
{pit }
plane
x1 is a plane {2-dimensional shape/form}
defined by points x2 {set}

 ↑

;
x1 is flat/{smooth} {also:
x1 is even/planar/level}; {x2 is a set of points at least sufficient to define the plane}

 ↑

; {cf. xutla, sefta, tapla, karda, boxfo, pinta}

 ↑

plixa
{lix }
plow
x1 {agent}
plows/furrows/tills {cuts into and turns up}
x2 with tool x3 propelled by x4 {cf. kakpa, sraku, katna, skuro}

 ↑

pluja
{luj }
complicated ; 'complex'
x1 is complex/complicated/involved in aspect/property x2 {ka}
by standard x3 {also tangled, confused}; {cf. cfipu, banli, sampu, jgena}

 ↑

pluka
{puk pu'a }
pleasant
x1 {event/state}
seems pleasant to/pleases x2 under conditions x3 {cf. rigni, cmavo list pu'a, melbi, nelci, prami}

 ↑

pluta
{lut lu'a }
route
x1 is a route/path/way/course/track to x2 from x3 via/defined by points including x4 {set}

 ↑

{a route merely connects origin/destination, but need not be improved in any way; {x4 is a set of points at least sufficient to constrain the route relevantly}

 ↑

}; {cf. litru, naxle, tcana, dargu, klaji, ve klama; tadji, zukte for means to a goal, klama, pagre}

 ↑

polje
{plo }
fold
x1 {force}
folds/creases x2 at locus/loci/forming crease{s}

 ↑

/bend{s}
x3 {for agentive folding {= plogau, plozu'e}

 ↑

; use cardinal-value sumti in x3, or rapli, to indicate multiple folds}; {cf. korcu, cinje, boxfo, boxna}

 ↑

polno
{pol }
Polynesian
x1 reflects Polynesian/Oceanian {geographic region}
culture/nationality/languages in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

ponjo
{pon po'o }
Japanese ; 'Nippon'
x1 reflects Japanese culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

ponse
{pos po'e }
possess
x1 possesses/owns/has x2 under law/custom x3;
x1 is owner/proprietor of x2 under x3 {x3 is generally more important to the concept than commonly accepted for the English equivalent, since the concept is broader when unconstrained, and the nature/interpretation of possession/ownership is very culturally dependent}

 ↑

; {cf. ckini, ralte, jitro, steci, srana, tutra, turni, zivle}

 ↑

porpi
{pop po'i }
break
x1 breaks/fractures/shatters/{splits/splinters/cracks}
into pieces x2 {cf. xrani, spofu, se katna}

 ↑

porsi
{por poi }
sequence
x1 {ordered set}
is sequenced/ordered/listed by comparison/rules x2 on unordered set x3 {also {adjective:}

x1 is serial}; {sets are completely specified}

 ↑

; {cf. cmavo list po'i, lidne, liste, cmima}

 ↑

porto
{pot }
Portuguese
x1 reflects Portuguese culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. brazo}

 ↑

prali
{pal }
profit
x1 is a profit/gain/benefit/advantage to x2 accruing/resulting from activity/process x3 {also {fe}
x2 profits from x3 {= selterprali for reordered places}

 ↑

;
x1 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= posprali for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. vecnu, cnemu, pleji, jinga, canja, sfasa, jerna, jdima, dunda, zivle}

 ↑

prami
{pam pa'i }
love
x1 loves/feels strong affectionate devotion towards x2 {object/state}

 ↑

{also:
x1 is loving towards x2,
x1 is a lover of x2 {one sense}

 ↑

, x2 is beloved by
x1 {= selprami for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. cinmo, xebni, nelci, djica, sinma, pluka, kurji, pendo, speni}

 ↑

prane
{pa'e }
perfect
x1 is perfect/ideal/archetypical/faultless/flawless/un-improvable in property/aspect x2 {ka}

 ↑

{also without defect/error}; {cf. manfo, curve, traji, cfila, mulno}

 ↑

preja
{pej pe'a }
spread
x1 spreads/expands over/into x2 from initial state x3 {cf. tcena, kuspe, ranji, fatri, muvdu, benji}

 ↑

prenu
{pre }
person
x1 is a person/people {noun}
{not necessarily human};
x1 displays personality/a persona {cf. nanmu, ninmu, remna, zukte, sevzi}

 ↑

preti
{ret rei }
question ; 'query'
x1 {quoted text}
is a question/query about subject x2 by questioner x3 to audience x4 {cf. nabmi, danfu, ciksi, frati, spuda, cpedu}

 ↑

prije
{pij }
wise ; 'sage'
x1 is wise/sage about matter x2 {abstraction}
to observer x3 {cf. bebna}

 ↑

prina
{pri }
print
x1 is a print/impression/image on/in surface x2 of/made by/using tool/press/implement/object x4 {cf. cukta, papri, pelji, pixra, ciska, danre, barna}

 ↑

pritu
{}
right
x1 is to the right/right-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3 {also: x3 is the standard of orientation for x2}; {cf. cmavo list ri'u, mlana, crane, trixe, farna, zunle}

 ↑

prosa
{ros ro'a }
prose
x1 is prose about plot/theme/subject x2 by author x3 for intended audience x4 {non-poetic written text, without intentional rhyme or meter; x2 may be a convention rather than a subject}; {cf. cfika, lisri, cukta, pemci, finti}

 ↑

pruce
{ruc ru'e }
process
x1 is a process with inputs x2, outputs/results x3, passing through steps/stages x4 {x2 resource {= selru'e, but also ru'etci, {ru'er-/ruc- or selru'e-/selruc- modifying:}
selxaksu, selsabji, livla}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list pu'e, farvi, tadji, grute, tcini}

 ↑

pruni
{pun }
elastic ; 'springy' {adjective:}

x1 is elastic/springy {cf. ckabu, tcena}

 ↑

pruxi
{rux ru'i }
spirit
x1 is spiritual/pertains to the soul in nature {either energy or being};
x1 is ghostly/ethereal {also soul {= ruxpe'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. censa, lijda, mucti, xadni}

 ↑

pu'i
{pus }
can and has modal aspect: can and has; demonstrated potential {cf. kakne}

 ↑

pu'u
{puv }
process abstract abstractor: process {event}
abstractor;
x1 is process of {bridi}
proceeding in stages x2 {cf. pruce}

 ↑

pulce
{puc pu'e }
dust ; 'pulverized'
x1 is dust/precipitate {suspensible solid}
from x2 in medium/on surface x3 {cf. te zalvi, danmo, purmo, sligu}

 ↑

pulji
{}
police
x1 is a police officer/{enforcer/vigilante}
enforcing law{s}

 ↑

/rule{s}

 ↑

/order x2 {police officer, as an agent of authority {= ca'irpulji, ka'irpulji}

 ↑

, as part of a police force {= puljysoi}

 ↑

; military police {= jempulji, bilpulji}

 ↑

}; {cf. catni, sonci, bilni, flalu, bandu, jemna, zekri, krati}

 ↑

pulni
{}
pulley
x1 is a pulley {tool}
for performing action/function x2 rotating on axle x3 {cf. tutci, xislu, vraga}

 ↑

punji
{puj pu'i }
put
x1 {agent}
puts/places/sets x2 on/at surface/locus x3 {cf. cpacu, lebna, cpana, batke, setca}

 ↑

punli
{pul }
swelling
x1 is a swelling/protrusion/convexity {shape/form}
at/in/on x2, of material x3 {{adjective:}

x1 is swollen}; {cf. balji, cmana, plana}

 ↑

purci
{pur pru }
past ; 'earlier'
x1 is in the past of/earlier than/before x2 in time sequence;
x1 is former; x2 is latter {time ordering only {use lidne otherwise}

 ↑

; aorist in that
x1 may overlap in time with x2 as long as it starts before,
x1 starts before x2 but is continuing during x2 {= cfaprucabna}

 ↑

; non-aorist before, i.e.
x1 is over/ended before x2 starts {= fa'opru}

 ↑

,
x1 is completed before x2 starts {= mu'opru}

 ↑

}; {cf. lidne, balvi, cabna, farna}

 ↑

purdi
{pud }
garden
x1 is a garden/tended/cultivated field of family/community/farmer x2 growing plants/crop x3 {orchard {= ricpurdi}

 ↑

}; {cf. foldi, cange, panka}

 ↑

purmo
{pum pu'o }
powder
x1 is a powder of material x2 {flour {= grupu'o, xripu'o}

 ↑

}; {cf. pulce, zalvi}

 ↑

 ↑

racli
{}
sane ; 'rational'
x1 {action/activity/behavior}
is sane/rational by standard x2 {cf. fenki}

 ↑

ractu
{}
rabbit
x1 is a rabbit/hare/{doe}
of species/breed x2 {cf. mabru, kerlo}

 ↑

radno
{ra'o }
radian
x1 is x2 radian{s}
{metric}
in angular measure {default is 1}
by standard x3 {measured in degrees {julra'o}

 ↑

; right ascension {astronomical measurement}
{= cacryra'o}

 ↑

}
{cf. }

 ↑

rafsi
{raf }
affix
x1 is an affix/suffix/prefix/combining-form for word/concept x2, form/properties x3, language x {cf. valsi, lujvo, pagbu}

 ↑

ragve
{rav }
across
x1 is located across/on the other side of gap/boundary x2 from x3;
x1 is opposite {fi}
x3 {also:
x1 is over there {across/beyond zo'e}

 ↑

; directly across/beyond a boundary/gap, generally at the shortest plausible distance on the other side of the boundary}; {cf. dukti, kuspe, bancu, kruca, cripu, pagre}

 ↑

rakso
{}
Iraqi
x1 reflects Iraqi culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xrabo}

 ↑

raktu
{ra'u }
trouble
x1 {event}
troubles/disturbs x2 {person}
causing problem{s}
x3 {also afflicts, is disruptive to, troublesome;
x1/x3 are a care to, x2 is troubled by/cares about
x1/x3 {= selra'u for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. dicra, fanza, zunti, kurji, xanka}

 ↑

ralci
{rac }
delicate ; 'fragile'
x1 is delicate/fragile/subtle/refined in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

{easily damaged or rendered less pleasing/pure/effective}; {cf. jdari, ranti, tsali, milxe, kukte}

 ↑

ralju
{ral }
principal
x1 is principal/chief/leader/main/{staple}, most significant among x2 {set}
in property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{staple {= ralselpra}

 ↑

; general/admiral/president/principal leader {= ralja'a, ralterbe'e; use additional terms to distinguish among these}

 ↑

; also primary, prime, {adverb:}
chiefly, principally, mainly; {x2 is complete specification of set}

 ↑

}; {cf. vajni, te bende, minde, lidne, jatna, jitro, gidva, midju}

 ↑

ralte
{ra'e }
retain
x1 retains/keeps/holds x2 in its possession {cf. cirko, rinju, ponse, jgari, pinfu, stali, curmi}

 ↑

randa
{rad }
yield ; 'surrender'
x1 yields/gives way/surrenders to x2 {force/agent}
under conditions x3 {cf. jdari, renvi, ranti, se bapli}

 ↑

rango
{rag }
organ
x1 is a/the body organ {body-part}
of body/species x2 performing function x3 {also sweetmeat {= ragdja}

 ↑

}
{cf. , besna, livga}

 ↑

ranji
{ra'i }
continue
x1 {event/state}
continues/persists over interval x2;
x1 {property - ka}
is continuous over x2 {cf. temci, kuspe, renvi, cedra, citsi, manfo, vitci, cukla, fliba, preja, tcena}

 ↑

ranmi
{ram }
myth
x1 is a myth/legend, a culturally significant story about x2 in mythos x3 of culture x4 {also:
x1 is mythical/fairy tale; used adjectivally for non-humanoid creatures of story/myth/legend/religion, e.g. dragon; fairy tale {= veryranmi}

 ↑

}; {cf. lijda, lisri, crida}

 ↑

ransu
{}
bronze
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of bronze of composition including x2 {cf. jinme, tunka, lastu}

 ↑

ranti
{ran }
soft
x1 is soft/malleable/moldable/yielding to force x2 in conditions x3 {cf. ralci, jdari, lakse, randa, gradu}

 ↑

ranxi
{rax }
irony
x1 is ironic{al}

 ↑

/contrary to expectation x2 in state/property/aspect x3 {cf. dukti, frica, cizra}

 ↑

rapli
{rap }
repeat
x1 {action}
repeats/is repeated for a total of x2 {quantity}
occurrences {practice {= rapyzu'e, rapxelcli, rapyzukmo'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list roi, cafne, krefu, fukpi, pilji, xruti}

 ↑

rarna
{rar }
natural
x1 is natural/spontaneous/instinctive, not {consciously}
caused by person{s}

 ↑

{cf. rutni, jinzi, nurma, stati}

 ↑

ratcu
{}
rat
x1 is a rat of species/breed x2 {cf. smacu}

 ↑

ratni
{rat }
atom
x1 is an atom of element/atomic number x2 of isotope number/atomic weight x3 {cf. kantu for a basic unit of a property or activity; selci for a basic physical subunit, generally of a mass}

 ↑

re
{rel }
2 digit/number: 2 {digit}

 ↑

rebla
{reb }
tail
x1 is a/the tail/appendix {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: trailing, following portion/appendage} {cf. nalci, pimlu, se lidne, trixe, birka, jimca}

 ↑

rectu
{rec re'u }
meat ; 'flesh'
x1 is a quantity of/contains meat/flesh from source/animal x2 {cf. sluji}

 ↑

remna
{rem re'a }
human
x1 is a human/human being/man {non-specific gender-free sense}

 ↑

; {adjective:}

x1 is human {cf. nanmu, ninmu, prenu}

 ↑

renro
{rer re'o }
throw
x1 throws/launches/casts/hurls x2 to/at/in direction x3 {propulsion derives internally to
x1}

 ↑

{cf. cecla {more general term}

 ↑

, danti}

 ↑

renvi
{rev re'i }
survive
x1 survives/endures/undergoes/abides/lasts/persists through x2 for interval/duration x3 {also lasts out, withstands;
x1 persists/lasts for duration x3; {adjective:}

x1 is tough/durable}; {cf. ranji, kuspe, randa, lifri, stali, temci}

 ↑

respa
{res }
reptile
x1 is a reptile of species/breed x2 {cf. danlu, banfi, since}

 ↑

ricfu
{rif cfu }
rich
x1 is rich/wealthy in goods/possessions/property/aspect x2 {cf. solji, banzu, dukse, pindi}

 ↑

rigni
{rig }
disgusting ; 'repugnant'
x1 is repugnant to/causes disgust to x2 under conditions x3 {cf. djica, nelci, trina, vamtu, xebni, pluka}

 ↑

rijno
{rij }
silver ; 'argent'
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of silver/argentum {Ag}

 ↑

; {metaphor: valuable, tarnishing} {cf. solji}

 ↑

rilti
{ril }
rhythm
x1 {sequence/non-text quote}
is a rhythm/beat of music/expressive form x2 {not necessarily oscillatory/regular pattern}; {cf. damri, pemci, tonga, zgike, slilu, dikni, sanga, morna}

 ↑

rimni
{rim }
rhyme
x1 rhymes/alliterates with x2 in language/phonetics x3, matching sound correspondence x4 {ka}

 ↑

{broad meaning of rhyme - any matching sound correspondence}; {cf. pemci, sanga}

 ↑

rinci
{}
drain
x1 liquid/fluid drains/strains/flushes from source x2 through drain/strainer x3 by force x4 {x4 is usually gravity}; {cf. pambe, tisna, setca, flecu, muvdu, ganxo, rirxe}

 ↑

rinju
{ri'u }
restrain
x1 is restrained/held {back}/constrained/kept by restraint x2 against x3 {event}

 ↑

{also: x2 is a restraint/binding for
x1, x2 keeps/restrains/holds {back}/constrains
x1 from x3 {= selri'u for reordered places}

 ↑

; agentive restraint {= ri'urgau, ri'urzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. zifre, ralte, pinfu, kavbu, fanta, jgari, jimte, bapli, curmi, kluza, tagji}

 ↑

rinka
{rik ri'a }
cause
x1 {event/state}
effects/physically causes effect x2 {event/state}
under conditions x3 {
x1 is a material condition for x2;
x1 gives rise to x2}; {cf. gasnu, krinu, nibli, te zukte, se jalge, bapli, jitro, cmavo list ri'a, mukti, ciksi, xruti}

 ↑

rinsa
{}
greet
x1 {agent}
greets/hails/{welcomes/says hello to}/responds to arrival of x2 in manner x3 {action {cf. friti for welcome/hospitality, cmavo list coi, cmavo list co'o}

 ↑

rirci
{}
rare
x1 {member}
is rare/unusual/uncommon/atypical in property x2 {ka}
among members of x3 {set}

 ↑

{x3 is complete specification of set}

 ↑

; {cf. cizra, fadni, cafne, kampu, cnano - the generalized opposite to any/all of these concepts}

 ↑

rirni
{rir }
parent ; 'rear'
x1 is a parent of/raises/rears x2;
x1 mentors/acts parental toward child/protege x2 {cf. rorci, mamta, patfu, sidju, dzena, famti, verba, bersa}

 ↑

rirxe
{ri'e }
river
x1 is a river of landmass x2, draining watershed x3 into x4/terminating at x4 {cf. flecu, senta for most metaphorical aspects; daplu, djacu, lalxu, xamsi, rinci, naxle}

 ↑

rismi
{ris }
rice
x1 is a quantity of rice {a type of grain}
of strain/cultivar x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

risna
{}
heart ; 'cardiac'
x1 is a/the heart {body-part}
of x2; {emotional/shape metaphors are NOT culturally neutral} {{adjective:}

x1 is cardiac}; {cf. pambe, ciblu}

 ↑

ritli
{ri'i }
rite
x1 is a rite/ceremony/ritual for purpose/goal x2, by custom/in community x3, with form/rules x4 {also:
x1 is formal, {legal};
x1 is 'going through the motions'}; x4 constraints/customs; {cf. lijda, malsi, flalu, javni, tcaci, clite, junri}

 ↑

rivbi
{riv }
avoid ; 'evade'
x1 avoids/evades/shuns/escapes/skirts {fate}
x2 {event}
through action/state x3 {event}

 ↑

{also detours around, stays away from; {
x1 is normally an object, but may be an event}

 ↑

}; {cf. bandu which is not necessarily successful, fanta, which is agentive, se jersi which implies an opposing agent, sisku, kalte, fapro}

 ↑

ro
{rol }
each digit/number: each, all roi
{rom roi }
quantified tense converts number to an objectively quantified tense interval modifier; defaults to time tense {cf. rapli}

 ↑

rokci
{rok ro'i }
rock
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains rock/stone of type/composition x2 from location x3 {x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification};{cf. kunra, jemna, canre}

 ↑

romge
{rog }
chrome
x1 is a highly reflective/polished non-tarnishing metallic surface, of metal x2 {often chromium {cf. jinme}

 ↑

ropno
{ron ro'o }
European
x1 reflects European culture/nationality/geography/Indo-European languages in aspect x2 {cf. , brito}

 ↑

rorci
{ror }
procreate
x1 engenders/procreates/begets x2 with coparent x3 {cf. grute, gutra, rirni, se panzi, mamta, patfu, tarbi, bersa, ferti, jbena, sovda}

 ↑

rotsu
{rot tsu ro'u }
thick ; 'stout'
x1 is thick in dimension/direction x2 by standard x3; {relatively long in smallest dimension} {also stout}; {cf. barda, cinla, ganra, clani, condi, plana, gutci, minli}

 ↑

rozgu
{roz zgu }
rose
x1 is a rose {flower - characterized by prickly stem/fragrance}
of species/strain x2 {roses are not all pink; avoid using for color rose, which might be labyxu'e}; {cf. spati, xunre}

 ↑

ruble
{rub ble }
weak ; 'feeble'
x1 is weak/feeble/frail in property/quality/aspect x2 {ka}
by standard x3 {cf. carmi, vlipa, tsali, kandi, kandi, milxe}

 ↑

rufsu
{ruf }
rough
x1 is rough/coarse/uneven/{grainy/scabrous/rugged}
in texture/regularity {fine-textured {= tolrufsu}

 ↑

}; {cf. xutla, tengu, vitci}

 ↑

runme
{rum }
melt ; 'runny'
x1 melts {becomes liquid from solid state}
at temperature x2 and pressure x3 {
x1 runs {= rumfle}

 ↑

}; {cf. dunja, febvi, lunsa, bisli}

 ↑

runta
{}
dissolve
x1 dissolves in solvent x2 forming solution/{suspension}
x3 under conditions x4 {suspension {= pucyteryrunta, pucyxre}

 ↑

}; {cf. litki, mixre, sligu, sudga}

 ↑

rupnu
{rup ru'u }
dollar ; 'ruble'
x1 is measured in major-money-units {dollar/yuan/ruble}
as x2 {quantity}

 ↑

, monetary system x3 {also pound, rupee, franc, mark, yen;
x1 is generally a price/cost/value}; {cf. jdini, sicni, jdima, vecnu, fepni, dekpu, gutci, minli, merli, bunda, kramu}

 ↑

rusko
{ruk ru'o }
Russian
x1 reflects Russian culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. softo, slovo}

 ↑

rutni
{run }
artifact
x1 is an artifact;
x1 is artificial;
x1 is made/caused by people/se kulnu x2;
x1 is man-made {cf. rarna, se zbasu, gundi, slasi}

 ↑

 ↑

sabji
{sab }
provide ; 'supply'
x1 {source}
provides/supplies/furnishes x2 {supply/commodity}
to x3 {recipient} {agentive supply {= sabgau, sabzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. krasi, sorcu}

 ↑

sabnu
{}
cabin
x1 is a cabin of vehicle x2 {cf. bloti, marce, vinji, karce}

 ↑

sacki
{}
match
x1 is a match {incendiary device}
made of x2 {cf. fagri, jelca}

 ↑

saclu
{}
decimal
x1 {me'o}
is the {decimal/binary}
equivalent of fractional x2 {me'o}
in base x3 {quantity}

 ↑

{conversion from fractions to decimal-point based notation}
{cf. }

 ↑

sadjo
{djo }
Saudi
x1 reflects Saudi Arabian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xrabo}

 ↑

sakci
{sak }
suck
x1 sucks/is suction/vacuum/relative low pressure of fluid/gas x2 relative to high pressure x3 {also suck object/fluid {= sakcpu or sakmu'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. cokcu, lacpu, flecu}

 ↑

sakli
{sal }
slide ; 'slip'
x1 slides/slips/glides on x2 {x2 is slick/slippery to/for
x1 {= selsakli for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. mosra, fulta, skiji, xutla}

 ↑

sakta
{sat }
sugar ; 'sucrose'
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of sugar {sweet edible}
from source x2 of composition x3 {also sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, etc.; saccharine/aspartame/sugar substitute {basysakta. ticysakta}

 ↑

; carbohydrate {= satsmi}

 ↑

; x3: composition including x3, which need not be complete specification}; {cf. silna, titla}

 ↑

salci
{sla }
celebrate
x1 celebrates/recognizes/honors x2 {event/abstract}
with activity/{party}
x3 {x3 {and nunsalci}
festival/fiesta/celebration/occasion/fair/{holiday {some senses}

 ↑

}; not limited to the ameliorative interpretation of 'celebrate': funeral {= mrobixsla}

 ↑

}; {cf. sinma, jbena}

 ↑

salpo
{sa'o }
slope
x1 is sloped/inclined/slanted/aslant with angle x2 to horizon/frame x3 {also steep {= tcesa'o}

 ↑

; normally implies non-rectilinear}; {cf. kurfa, tutci}

 ↑

salta
{}
salad
x1 {mass}
is a quantity of salad {food}
with ingredients/components including x2 {x2 is in
x1, an ingredient/part/component of
x1}; {cf. mixre, stasu}

 ↑

samcu
{}
cassava ; 'yam'
x1 is a quantity of cassava/taro/manioc/tapioca/yam {edible starchy root}
of species/strain x2 {cf. patlu, genja, jalna}

 ↑

sampu
{sap }
simple
x1 is simple/unmixed/uncomplicated in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. pluja, curve, frili, manfo}

 ↑

sance
{sna }
sound
x1 is sound produced/emitted by x2 {x2 sounds {intransitive verb}

 ↑

}; {cf. savru, tirna, voksa, siclu, slaka}

 ↑

sanga
{sag sa'a }
sing
x1 sings/chants x2 {song/hymn/melody/melodic sounds}
to audience x3 {melody {= sa'azgi, ralsa'azgi}

 ↑

, harmony {= saxsa'azgi}

 ↑

, harmonize/sing harmony {= saxsa'a}

 ↑

, song {= selsa'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. pemci, rimni, rilti, siclu}

 ↑

sanji
{saj }
conscious
x1 is conscious/aware of x2 {object/abstract}

 ↑

;
x1 discerns/recognizes x2 {object/abstract}

 ↑

{also:
x1 knows {of}
x2 {one sense}

 ↑

; awareness implies some amount of mental processing above and beyond mere sensory detection, and may also be applied to mental relationships that are not detected by the senses}; {cf. menli, morji, ganse, sipna, cikna}

 ↑

sanli
{sa'i }
stand
x1 stands {is vertically oriented}
on surface x2 supported by limbs/support/pedestal x3 {
x1 is standing;
x1 stands up;
x1 is erect/vertical/upright;
x1 bows/bends over {= krosa'i, krosa'ibi'o, plosa'i}

 ↑

; frame of reference is {approximate}
perpendicularity to the surface, and not to a gravity field}; {cf. kamju, sraji, tuple, zbepi, sarji}

 ↑

sanmi
{sai }
meal
x1 {mass}
is a meal composed of dishes including x2 {x2 is a course/dish of meal
x1 {= selsai for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. barja, stasu, gusta, sanso}

 ↑

sanso
{}
sauce
x1 is a sauce/topping/gravy/frosting for use with x2, containing ingredient{s}
including x3 {x3 is in
x1, an ingredient/part/component of sauce
x1}; {cf. sanmi, mixre, stasu}

 ↑

santa
{}
umbrella
x1 is an umbrella/parasol shielding x2 from x3, made of material x4, supported by x5 {cf. carvi, solri}

 ↑

sarcu
{sa'u }
necessary
x1 {abstract}
is necessary/required for continuing state/process x2 under conditions x3 {also factually necessary, necessity, prerequisite, condition, precondition}; {cf. cmavo list sau, nitcu}

 ↑

sarji
{sra }
support
x1 supports/holds up/is underpinning of/{helps}
x2 against force/opposition x3 with/by means x4 {also aids; {adjective:}

x1 is dependable, reliable; {x2 is object/event}

 ↑

}; {cf. bradi, darlu, fapro, sidju, tugni, bongu, ckana, cpana, loldi, sanli, selfu}

 ↑

sarlu
{}
spiral
x1 is a spiral/helix/whorl/{vortex}
{shape/form}
with limits x2, of dimensionality x3 {cf. klupe, korcu, tarmi}

 ↑

sarxe
{sax }
harmonious
x1 is harmonious/concordant/in agreement/concord with x2 in property x3 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. satci, panpi, mapti, tugni, ckini}

 ↑

saske
{ske }
science
x1 {mass of facts}
is science of/about subject matter x2 based on methodology x3 {not limited to science as derived by the scientific method, but pertaining to any body of usually-coherent knowledge garnered/gathered/assembled by a consistent methodology}; {cf. datni, fatci, djuno, cipra, pensi, jimpe}

 ↑

satci
{}
exact ; 'precise'
x1 {measurement/match}
is exact/precise to precision x2 in property/quantity x3 {ka/ni}

 ↑

{cf. sarxe, dunli, merli, mapti, kancu, mintu}

 ↑

satre
{sa'e }
stroke
x1 {agent}
strokes/rubs/pets x2 with x3 {pet {= pamsa'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. mosra, pencu}

 ↑

savru
{sav vru }
noise ; 'clamor'
x1 is a noise/din/clamor {sensory input without useful information}
to x2 via sensory channel x {cf. sance, cladu, kerlo, smaji, tirna, siclu}

 ↑

sazri
{saz }
operate
x1 operates/drives/runs x2 {apparatus/machine}
with goal/objective/use/end/function x3 {cf. gidva, xlura, pilno, tutci, jitro, gunka}

 ↑

se
{sel }
2nd conversion 2nd conversion; switch 1st/2nd places sefta
{sfe }
surface
x1 is surface/face {bounded shape/form}
of {higher-dimension}
object x2, on side x3, edges x4 {also x4 bounds}; {cf. crane, flira, plita, bliku}

 ↑

selci
{sle }
cell
x1 is a cell/atom/unit/molecule of x2;
x1 is an indivisible, most basic subunit of x2 {x2 generally has mass nature}

 ↑

; {cf. kantu for properties, activities; ratni, gradu}

 ↑

selfu
{sef se'u }
serve
x1 {agent}
serves x2 with service x3 {activity}

 ↑

;
x1 is a servant {noun}
of x2 performing x3 {cf. sidju, sarji, gunka}

 ↑

semto
{sme }
Semitic
x1 reflects Semitic {metaphor: Middle-Eastern}
language/culture/nationality in aspect x2 {Semitic includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Ethiopian, among others}; {cf. xrabo}

 ↑

senci
{sec }
sneeze
x1 sneezes {intransitive verb} {cf. bilma, kafke}

 ↑

senpi
{sen }
doubt ; 'skeptic'
x1 doubts/is dubious/doubtful/skeptical/questions that x2 {du'u}
is true {also: x2 is doubtful/dubious/questionable {= selsenpi for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. jinvi, krici, djuno, birti}

 ↑

senta
{set }
layer ; 'stratum'
x1 is a layer/stratum {shape/form}
of x2 {material}
within structure/continuum/composite x3 {cf. flecu, nenri, rirxe, sepli, snuji, jbini, bitmu, sruri, serti}

 ↑

senva
{sev sne }
dream ; 'reverie'
x1 dreams about/that x2 {fact/idea/event/state}

 ↑

; x2 is a dream/reverie of
x1 {dream/reverie {= selsne}

 ↑

}; {cf. sipna, xanri}

 ↑

sepli
{sep sei }
apart ; 'separate'
x1 is apart/separate from x2, separated by partition/wall/gap/interval/separating medium x3 {also aloof {= jiksei}

 ↑

, alone {= rolsmisei, pavysei, sepypavmei}

 ↑

; x3 space}; {cf. bitmu, snuji, senta, fendi, curve, jinsa, bitmu, marbi}

 ↑

serti
{ser }
stairs
x1 are stairs/stairway/steps for climbing structure x2 with steps x3 {cf. stapa, loldi, senta}

 ↑

setca
{se'a }
insert
x1 {agent}
inserts/interposes/puts/deposits x2 into interior x3/into among/between members of x {insertion need not imply a significant degree of 'filling'; inject {= je'erse'a}

 ↑

; syringe/needle {= se'arterje'e, je'erse'atci}

 ↑

; also pour, inflate, stuff, fill}; {cf. rinci, tisna, punji, jbini, nenri, jmina, culno, kunti, catlu}

 ↑

sevzi
{sez se'i }
self
x1 is a self/ego/id/identity-image of x2 {cf. cmavo list mi, prenu, menli, jgira}

 ↑

sfani
{}
fly
x1 is a fly {a small non-stinging flying insect}
of species/breed x2 {cf. cinki, bifce}

 ↑

sfasa
{sfa }
punish ; 'spank, castigate'
x1 {agent}
punishes x2 for infraction x3 {event/state/action}
with punishment x4 {event/state}

 ↑

{also chastise, castigate, chasten, discipline, correct {one sense}

 ↑

; also x4 penalty; x4 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities {rare for sfasa}

 ↑

, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'esfa, po'ervelsfa for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. cnemu, pleji, venfu, zekri, canja, dunda, jdima, jerna, kargu, prali, dapma, cirko, jinga}

 ↑

sfofa
{sfo }
sofa
x1 is a sofa/couch {noun} {cf. nilce}

 ↑

sfubu
{sub su'u }
dive ; 'swoop'
x1 dives/swoops {manner of controlled falling}
to x2 from x3 {cf. farlu, farlu}

 ↑

si'o
{siz }
concept abstract abstractor: idea/concept abstractor;
x1 is x2's concept of {bridi} {cf. sidbo}

 ↑

siclu
{sil }
whistle
x1 {sound source}
whistles/makes whistling sound/note/tone/melody x2 {cf. sance, tonga, sanga, zgike, savru}

 ↑

sicni
{si'i }
coin ; 'specie'
x1 is a coin/token/is specie issued by x2 having value x3 of composition including x4 {cf. fepni, jdini, rupnu}

 ↑

sidbo
{sib si'o }
idea
x1 {idea abstract}
is an idea/concept/thought about x2 {object/abstract}
by thinker x3 {also {adjective:}

x1 is ideal/ideational}; {cf. ciksi, jijnu, mucti, jinvi, nabmi, pensi, xanri, cmavo list si'o}

 ↑

sidju
{dju }
help ; 'aid'
x1 helps/assists/aids object/person x2 do/achieve/maintain event/activity x3 {cf. cmavo list si'u, rirni, sarji, vipsi, ferti, selfu}

 ↑

sigja
{sig }
cigar
x1 is a cigar/cigarette/cigarillo made from tobacco/smokable substance x2 by x3 {cf. danmo, jelca, tanko, marna}

 ↑

silka
{sik }
silk
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of silk produced by x2 {cf. curnu, bukpu, cilta}

 ↑

silna
{}
salt
x1 is a portion/quantity of salt from source x2, of composition including x3 {cf. sakta}

 ↑

simlu
{mlu }
seem
x1 seems/appears to have property{ies}
x2 to observer x3 under conditions x4 {also:
x1 seems like it has x2 to x3; a suggested belief/observation {= mlugau, mluti'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. catlu, viska, simsa, zgana, ganse, jarco}

 ↑

simsa
{smi }
similar
x1 is similar/parallel to x2 in property/quantity x3 {ka/ni}

 ↑

;
x1 looks/appears like x2 {also:
x1 is a likeness/image of x2;
x1 and x2 are alike; similarity and parallel differ primarily in emphasis}; {cf. dunli, frica, mintu, panra, simlu, vrici}

 ↑

simxu
{sim si'u }
mutual
x1 {set}
has members who mutually/reciprocally x2 {event {
x1 should be reflexive in 1+ sumti}}

 ↑

{members of
x1 do to each other/one another x2, and in return do x2;
x1 and x2 are the same {= simymi'u, mintu}

 ↑

}; {cf. kampu, mintu}

 ↑

since
{}
snake
x1 is a snake/serpent of species/breed x2 {cf. curnu, danlu, respa, vindu}

 ↑

sinma
{si'a }
esteem
x1 esteems/respects/venerates/highly regards x2 {object of respect} {also: x2 is respected/esteemed/celebrated {= selsi'a for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. banli, censa, misno, nelci, prami, salci, jgira}

 ↑

sinso
{}
sine
x1 is the trigonometric sine of angle x2 {cf. tanjo}

 ↑

sinxa
{sni }
sign
x1 is a sign/symbol/signal representing/referring/signifying/meaning x2 to observer x3 {also:
x1 signifies x2; {adjective:}

x1 is significant/meaningful/of import; signal an action {= sniti'i}

 ↑

, connotation {= se sibyti'isni, sibyti'ismu}

 ↑

}; {cf. lerfu, tcita, barna, mifra, smuni}

 ↑

sipna
{sip }
sleep
x1 is asleep {adjective}

 ↑

;
x1 sleeps/is sleeping {cf. senva, tatpi, cikna, sanji}

 ↑

sirji
{sir }
straight
x1 is straight/direct/line segment/interval between x2 and x3; {adjective:}

x1 is linear {cf. korcu, linji, kruvi, kuspe}

 ↑

sirxo
{six }
Syrian
x1 reflects Syrian culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xrabo}

 ↑

sisku
{sis }
seek
x1 seeks/searches/looks for property x2 among set x3 {complete specification of set}

 ↑

{if searching for an object or an event, use tu'a in x2}; {cf. cirko, kalte, kavbu, kucli, rivbi, manci, facki}

 ↑

sisti
{sti }
cease
x1 {agent}
ceases/stops/halts activity/process/state x2 {not necessarily completing it} {cf. fanmo, mulno, cfari, denpa, fliba}

 ↑

sitna
{sit }
cite
x1 cites/quotes/refers to/makes reference to source x2 for information/statement x3 {du'u}

 ↑

{cf. krasi}

 ↑

sivni
{siv }
private
x1 is private/personal/privy/{secret/confidential/confined}
to x2;
x1 is not-public/hidden {also:
x1 is secret {one sense}

 ↑

; x2 is in the know/in touch with/privy to
x1 {= selsivni for reordered places}

 ↑

; exclusion can be expressed by na'e{bo}
in x2: excluded/in the dark {= nalselsivni}

 ↑

}; {cf. gubni, mipri}

 ↑

skaci
{}
skirt
x1 is a skirt/kilt/dress of material x2;
x1 is skirted {garment open at the bottom; not legged} {a skirted garment may be full length {pastu}

 ↑

, but must hang below the waist from support above or at the waist}; {cf. taxfu, palku}

 ↑

skami
{sam }
computer
x1 is a computer for purpose x2 {cf. kanji, minji, pensi}

 ↑

skapi
{kap }
pelt ; 'skin'
x1 is a pelt/skin/hide/leather from x2 {cf. pilka, calku, kerfa}

 ↑

skari
{ska }
color
x1 is/appears to be of color/hue x2 as perceived/seen by x3 under conditions x4 {conditions may include lighting, background, etc.}; {cf. blanu, bunre, cicna, cinta, crino, grusi, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu, carmi, kandi, xekri, blabi}

 ↑

skicu
{ski }
describe
x1 tells about/describes x2 {object/event/state}
to audience x3 with description x4 {property}

 ↑

{cf. lisri, tavla}

 ↑

skiji
{sij }
ski
x1 is a ski/skid/skate/runner for surface {of material}
x2 supporting skier/skater/sled/cargo x {cf. sakli, marce, cutci}

 ↑

skina
{kin }
cinema
x1 is a cinema/movie/film about x2 {plot/theme/subject/activity}, filmmaker x3, for audience x4 {also motion picture; x2 may be a convention rather than a subject; cartoon/animation {= selpirci'a skina}

 ↑

; television/tv show {= tivyskina, regardless of length, factual content, etc.}

 ↑

}; {cf. tivni, vidni, pixra, finti}

 ↑

skori
{sko }
cord
x1 is cord/cable/rope/line/twine/cordage/woven strands of material x2 {cf. cilta, jgena, marna, bikla, linsi}

 ↑

skoto
{kot ko'o }
Scottish
x1 reflects Gaelic/Scottish culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {Irish {= sicko'o}

 ↑

, Scottish {= sunko'o}

 ↑

, Celtic {= dzeko'o}

 ↑

; since Scottish/Gaelic is only the northern branch of the Celtic tribes, many would prefer a le'avla for Celtic; nationalism might also demand a separate le'avla for Irish}; {cf. brito, glico}

 ↑

skuro
{ku'o }
groove ; 'furrow'
x1 is a groove/trench/furrow {shape/form}
in object/surface x2 {cf. plixa}

 ↑

slabu
{sau }
familiar
x1 is old/familiar/well-known to observer x2 in feature x3 {ka}
by standard x4 {This can cover both meanings of old. Old in years, i.e. age, can be conveyed through x2 = the world, life, existence {= loi nu zasti}

 ↑

; in usage this has been a common default for ellipsis. However slabu is not the opposite of 'young' {= tolci'o}

 ↑

, but the opposite of 'new' {= tolni'o}

 ↑

; also ancient {= tcesau}

 ↑

, age {= nilsau}

 ↑

; x2 is used to
x1 {= selsau for reordered places}

 ↑

; historic/historical {= cirsau, cirselcedra; also vaipru}

 ↑

}; {cf. clani, citno, cnino, se djuno; not the opposite of citno, djuno}

 ↑

slaka
{}
syllable
x1 is a syllable in language x2 {cf. sance, valsi, bangu}

 ↑

slami
{}
acid
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of acid of composition x2; {adjective:}

x1 is acidic {x2: composition including x2, which need not be complete specification}; {cf. slari, nimre}

 ↑

slanu
{}
cylinder
x1 is a cylinder {shape/form}
of material x2 {cf. kamju, gunro}

 ↑

slari
{sar }
sour
x1 is sour/tart to observer x2 {cf. slami, titla, kurki, nimre}

 ↑

slasi
{las }
plastic
x1 is a quantity of/is made of/contains plastic/polymer of type/component unit{s}
x2 {cf. rutni, boxfo, bukpu}

 ↑

sligu
{lig }
solid
x1 is solid, of composition/material including x2, under conditions x3 {cf. runta, litki, gapci, jdari, dunja, pulce, jduli}

 ↑

slilu
{sli }
oscillate
x1 oscillates at rate/frequency x2 through set/sequence-of-states x3 {complete specification}

 ↑

{also {expressible either with desku or slilu}

 ↑

: side to side, to and fro, back and forth, reciprocal {motion}

 ↑

, rotates, revolves}; {cf. dikni, rilti, morna, desku, janbe, boxna}

 ↑

sliri
{}
sulfur
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of sulfur/brimstone {S}

 ↑

; {metaphor: foul odor, volcanic} {cf. }

 ↑

slovo
{lov lo'o }
Slavic
x1 reflects Slavic language/culture/ethos in aspect x2 {cf. softo, rusko, vukro}

 ↑

sluji
{slu }
muscle
x1 is a/the muscle {body-part}
controlling x2, of body x3; {metaphor: tools of physical power} {{adjective:}

x1 is muscular}; {cf. rectu, xadni, zajba}

 ↑

sluni
{}
onion
x1 is a quantity of/contains onions/scallions of type/cultivar x2 {cf. stagi}

 ↑

smacu
{}
mouse
x1 is a mouse of species/breed x2 {cf. ratcu}

 ↑

smadi
{}
guess ; 'surmise'
x1 guesses/conjectures/surmises x2 {du'u}
is true about subject x3; {epistemology} {also:
x1 has a hunch that x2 is true;
x1 imagines x2 is true; words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}; {cf. djuno, facki, jijnu, sruma}

 ↑

smaji
{sma }
quiet ; 'silent'
x1 {source}
is quiet/silent/{still}
at observation point x2 by standard x3 {cf. kerlo, panpi, savru, tirna}

 ↑

smani
{}
monkey ; 'simian'
x1 is a monkey/ape/simian/baboon/chimpanzee of species/breed x2 {cf. }

 ↑

smoka
{smo }
sock
x1 is a sock/stocking {flexible foot and lower leg garment}
of material x2 {cf. cutci, taxfu}

 ↑

smuci
{muc }
spoon
x1 is a spoon/scoop {tool}
for use x2, made of material x3 {cf. dakfu, forca, tutci}

 ↑

smuni
{mun smu }
meaning
x1 is a meaning/interpretation of x2 recognized/seen/accepted by x3 {referential meaning {=selsni, snismu}

 ↑

}; {cf. jimpe, sinxa, valsi, tanru, gismu, lujvo, cmavo, jufra}

 ↑

snada
{sad }
succeed ; 'accomplish'
x1 {agent}
succeeds in/achieves/completes/accomplishes x2 as a result of effort/attempt/try x3 {also:
x1 reaches x2; {adjective:}

x1 is successful; x2 {event/state/achievement}

 ↑

}; {cf. fliba, troci, jgira}

 ↑

snanu
{nan }
south
x1 is to the south/southern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3 {cf. berti, stuna, stici, farna}

 ↑

snidu
{nid }
second
x1 is x2 seconds in duration {default is 1 second}
by standard x3 {cf. cacra, junla, mentu, tcika, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

snime
{si'e }
snow
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity/expanse of snow {cf. bratu, carvi, bisli}

 ↑

snipa
{nip }
sticky
x1 adheres/sticks to x2; {adjective:}

x1 is sticky/gummy/adhesive {note that
x1 is the adhering surface being claimed; x2 need not be sticky}; {cf. tarla, viknu}

 ↑

snuji
{nuj }
sandwich
x1 is a sandwich/layering {not restricted to food}
of x2 sandwiched between x3 {cf. midju, nenri, sepli, senta, jbini, bitmu, sruri}

 ↑

snura
{nur nu'a }
secure
x1 is secure/safe from threat x2 {event}

 ↑

{cf. ckape, kajde, marbi, terpa, xalni, bandu}

 ↑

snuti
{nut }
accidental
x1 {event/state}
is an accident/unintentional on the part of x2;
x1 is an accident {cf. zukte, cunso}

 ↑

so
{soz }
9 digit/number: 9 {digit}

 ↑

so'a
{soj }
almost all digit/number: almost all {digit/number}

 ↑

so'e
{sop }
most digit/number: most so'i
{sor so'i }
many digit/number: many so'o
{sos }
several digit/number: several so'u
{sot }
few digit/number: few sobde
{sob so'e }
soya
x1 is a quantity of soya {grain/bean}
of species/strain x2 {cf. dembi, gurni}

 ↑

sodna
{}
sodium
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alkali metal of type x2 {default sodium} {also potassium, lithium, cesium}; {soda}
{cf. , jilka, jinme}

 ↑

sodva
{sod }
soda
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of a carbonated beverage of flavor/brand x2 {cf. jilka, jinme}

 ↑

softo
{sof }
Soviet
x1 reflects Russian empire/USSR/ex-USSR/CIS culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. rusko, vukro, slovo}

 ↑

solji
{slo }
gold
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of gold {Au}

 ↑

; {metaphor: valuable, heavy, non-reactive} {cf. ricfu, rijno, narju, pelxu}

 ↑

solri
{sol }
solar
x1 is the sun of home planet x2 {default Earth}
of race x3 {cf. gusni, lunra, mluni, plini, santa, terdi, tarci}

 ↑

sombo
{som so'o }
sow
x1 sows/plants x2 {crop/plants}
at/in x3 {cf. crepu, tsiju}

 ↑

sonci
{son soi }
soldier
x1 is a soldier/warrior/fighter of army x2 {cf. bilni, damba, jenmi, xarci, pulji}

 ↑

sorcu
{soc sro }
store
x1 is a store/deposit/supply/reserve of materials/energy x2 in containment x3 {x3 need not be a container, but could merely be a site/location restriction; e.g. a heap. The sumti identifies how the supply is identified and distinguished from other occurrences of the stored x2}; {cf. panka; vreji for information storage; sabji for a store or reserve that is not necessarily tied to a site, banxa, panka}

 ↑

sorgu
{sog }
sorghum
x1 is a quantity of sorghum of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

sovda
{sov so'a }
egg ; 'ovum'
x1 is an egg/ovum/sperm/pollen/gamete of/from organism {mother/father}
x2 {{poorly metaphorical only due to gender- and species- being unspecified}

 ↑

: ovoid, oblate {= pevysovyseltai, but better: claboi}

 ↑

; egg, specifically female {= fetso'a}

 ↑

, of a bird {= cpifetso'a, cpiso'a}

 ↑

, of a chicken {= jipcyfetso'a, jipcyso'a}
{but note that Lojban does not require specificity, just as English doesn't for either milk or eggs; "sovda" is fine for most contexts}

 ↑

; {if fertilized, then tsiju or tarbi}; {cf. ganti, gutra, mamta, patfu, rorci, tsiju, lanbi, tarbi; also djine, konju for shape, tarbi}

 ↑

spaji
{paj }
surprise
x1 {event/action abstract}
surprises/startles/is unexpected {and generally sudden}
to x2 {also expectation {= nalspaji}

 ↑

, alarm {= te'arspaji}

 ↑

}; {cf. manci, jenca, bredi, suksa}

 ↑

spali
{}
polish
x1 {agent}
polishes object/surface x2 with polish x3, applied using tool x4 {cf. mosra, sraku, xutla}

 ↑

spano
{san }
Spanish
x1 reflects Spanish-speaking culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {metaphorical restriction to Spain by contrast with xispo {comparable to the distinction between glico and merko/sralo/brito/kadno}

 ↑

; Spain {= sangu'e}

 ↑

; Spanish dialects spoken in Spain, especially Castillian {= sansanbau}

 ↑

}; {cf. xispo, ketco, mexno, gento}

 ↑

spati
{spa }
plant
x1 is a plant/herb/greenery of species/strain/cultivar x2 {also {adjective:}

x1 is vegetable/vegetal/vegetative}; {cf. genja, grute, gurni, latna, rozgu, stagi, tricu, tsiju, tujli, xruba, xrula, pezli, srasu}

 ↑

speni
{spe }
married ; 'spouse'
x1 is married to x2;
x1 is a spouse of x2 under law/custom/tradition/system/convention x3 {cf. prami, gletu}

 ↑

spisa
{spi }
piece
x1 {object/substance}
is a piece/portion/lump/chunk/particle of x2 {substance} {cf. pagbu}

 ↑

spita
{}
hospital
x1 is a hospital treating patient{s}
x2 for condition/injuries/disease/illness x3 {hospice {a place where x2 of spita is lenu mrobi'o = mrospita}

 ↑

}; {cf. bilma, mikce}

 ↑

spofu
{pof po'u }
broken
x1 is broken/inoperable/broken down/non-utile/not usable for function x2 {agentive break, cause to become inoperable {= pofygau, pofyzu'e}

 ↑

; accidentally break, as a result of an event, non-agentive {= pofyja'e, nutpofyja'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. daspo, katna, porpi, se xrani, cikre}

 ↑

spoja
{poj po'a }
explode
x1 bursts/explodes/violently breaks up/decomposes/combusts into pieces/energy/fragments x2 {cf. cecla, jakne, jbama}

 ↑

spuda
{spu }
reply ; 'respond'
x1 answers/replies to/responds to person/object/event/situation/stimulus x2 with response x3 {x3 also answer/reply}; {cf. cusku, preti, nabmi, danfu, frati, cpedu}

 ↑

sputu
{put pu'u }
spit
x1 spits/expectorates x2 {predominantly liquid}
from x3 to/onto x4 {saliva/spit/sputum/spittle {= molselpu'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. jetce, kafke, vamtu}

 ↑

sraji
{raj }
vertical ; 'upright'
x1 is vertical/upright/erect/plump/oriented straight up and down in reference frame/gravity x2 {cf. sanli, pinta}

 ↑

sraku
{rak }
scratch
x1 {abrasive/cutting/scratching object/implement}
scratches/{carves}/erodes/cuts {into}
x2 {cf. guska, katna, mosra, plixa, kakpa {unlike kakpa, sraku does not imply material is removed}

 ↑

, spali}

 ↑

sralo
{}
Australian
x1 reflects Australian culture/nationality/geography/dialect in aspect x2 {cf. glico}

 ↑

srana
{ra'a }
pertain ; 'concerns'
x1 pertains to/is germane/relevant to/concerns/is related/associated with/is about x2 {also:
x1 is a question of/treats of x2}; {cf. cmavo list ra'a, ckini, ponse, steci}

 ↑

srasu
{sas }
grass
x1 is a blade/expanse of grass of species x2 {lawn/meadow {= sasfoi}

 ↑

}; {cf. spati}

 ↑

srera
{sre }
err
x1 errs in doing/being/making mistake x2 {event}

 ↑

, an error under conditions x3 by standard x4 {cf. drani, which is non-agentive, cfila, fliba}

 ↑

srito
{}
Sanskrit
x1 reflects Sanskrit language/Sanskritic/Vedic culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. xindo, xurdo}

 ↑

sruma
{ru'a }
assume
x1 assumes/supposes that x2 {du'u}
is true about subject x3; {epistemology} {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}; {cf. smadi, birti}

 ↑

sruri
{rur sru }
surround
x1 encircles/encloses/is surrounding x2 in direction{s}

 ↑

/dimension{s}

 ↑

/plane x3 {{jinsru =}

x1 is a ring/belt/band/girdle around/circling/ringing x2 near total containment in some dimension{s}

 ↑

}; {cf. karli, senta, snuji, vanbi, se nenri, se jbini, bartu, djine}

 ↑

stace
{sac }
honest
x1 is honest/open/truthfully revealing to/candid/frank with x2 about matter/fact x3 {also straight, straight-forward}; {cf. tcica, jetnu, jitfa, mipri}

 ↑

stagi
{}
vegetable ; 'stalky'
x1 is the edible x2 portion of plant x3;
x1 is a vegetable {note that fruits and nuts are also vegetables; generally this word will be used for either the general category of edible plants, or for non-fruit vegetables {= nalrutstagi}

 ↑

}; {cf. grute, kobli, narge, sluni, spati, sunga, tamca}

 ↑

staku
{tak }
ceramic
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of ceramic made by x2, of composition x3, in form/shape x4 {made of baked clay or other non-metallic solid; x3: composition including x3, which need not be complete specification}; {cf. kliti}

 ↑

stali
{sta }
remain ; 'stay'
x1 remains/stays at/abides/lasts with x2 {cf. vitno, zasni, ralte, stodi, xabju, stuzi, renvi}

 ↑

stani
{}
stalk
x1 is a/the stalk/stem/trunk {body-part}
of plant/species x2; {metaphor: main support} {cf. tuple, mudri}

 ↑

stapa
{tap }
step
x1 steps/treads on/in surface x2 using limbs x3 {cf. bajra, plipe, cadzu, serti}

 ↑

stasu
{}
soup ; 'stew'
x1 is a quantity of soup/stew/olla/olio of ingredients including x2 {x2 is in
x1, an ingredient/part/component of
x1}; {cf. sanmi, mixre, salta, sanso}

 ↑

stati
{}
talent
x1 has a talent/aptitude/innate skill for doing/being x2 {cf. jinzi, certu, rarna, larcu, kakne}

 ↑

steba
{seb }
frustration
x1 feels frustration about x2 {abstraction}

 ↑

{cf. cinmo}

 ↑

steci
{tec te'i }
specific ; 'special'
x1 {ka}
is specific/particular/specialized/{special}/a defining property of x2 among x3 {set}

 ↑

{x2 are members/individuals of a subset of x3; object whose association is specific/defining of a subset or individuals {= tecra'a, also cf. cmavo list po'e, {x2 is also special to x1}

 ↑

; also: especially/strongly/specifically associated}; {x3 is completely specified set}

 ↑

}; {cf. srana, se ponse, ckini, tcila, tutra}

 ↑

stedu
{sed }
head
x1 is a/the head {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: uppermost portion} {skull {= sedbo'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. drudi, mebri, xedja, besna, flira, mapku}

 ↑

stela
{tel }
lock
x1 is a lock/seal of/on/for sealing x2 with/by locking mechanism x3 {cf. ckiku}

 ↑

stero
{te'o }
steradian
x1 is x2 steradian{s}
{metric}
in solid angle {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. , centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

stici
{sic }
west
x1 is to the west/western side of x2 according to frame of reference x3 {cf. stuna, berti, snanu, farna}

 ↑

stidi
{sid ti'i }
suggest
x1 {agent}
suggests/proposes idea/action x2 to audience x3;
x1 {event}
inspires x2 to x3 {event which inspires/suggests/is suggestive {= faurti'i, sidyfau}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ti'i, tcica, xlura}

 ↑

stika
{tik }
adjust
x1 {event}
adjusts/regulates/changes x2 {ka/ni}
in amount/degree x3 {non-resultative, agentive change}; {cf. cenba which need not be agentive, galfi which is agentive and resultative, binxo which need not be agentive but is resultative, zasni, stodi}

 ↑

stizu
{tiz }
chair ; 'stool'
x1 is a chair/stool/seat/bench, a piece or portion of a piece of furniture intended for sitting {cf. nilce, zutse, jubme, ckana}

 ↑

stodi
{sto }
constant ; 'stable'
x1 is constant/invariant/unchanging in property x2 {ka}
in response to stimulus/conditions x3 {also stable/consistent/steadfast/firm/steady}; {cf. cenba, stika, stali, vitno, manfo, zasni, tinsa, jdari}

 ↑

stuna
{sun }
east
x1 is to the east/eastern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3 {cf. stici, berti, snanu, farna}

 ↑

stura
{tur su'a }
structure
x1 is a structure/arrangement/organization of x2 {set/system/complexity} {x2, if a set, is completely specified}

 ↑

; {cf. ganzu, morna, ciste, lujvo, greku, gerna}

 ↑

stuzi
{tuz stu }
site ; 'position'
x1 is an inherent/inalienable site/place/position/situation/spot/location of x2 {object/event}

 ↑

{generally used for normally stationary objects/events, to give their 'permanent' location}; {cf. cmavo list tu'i, jmive, diklo, zvati, tcini, xabju, jibni, judri, lamji, mokca, stali}

 ↑

su'e
{sup su'e }
at most digit/number: at most {all}

 ↑

no more than su'o
{suz su'o }
at least digit/number: at least {some}

 ↑

no less than {cf. cmalu, mleca}

 ↑

su'u
{suv }
unspecif abstract abstractor: generalized abstractor {how}

 ↑


x1 is {bridi}
as a non-specific abstraction of type x {cf. sucta}

 ↑

sucta
{suc }
abstract
x1 {si'o}
is abstracted/generalized/idealized from x2 {something concrete}
by rules x3 {cf. fatci, xanri}

 ↑

sudga
{sud }
dry
x1 is dry of liquid x2; {adjective:}

x1 is arid {cf. cilmo, litki, runta}

 ↑

sufti
{sfu }
hoof
x1 is a/the hoof {body-part}
of x2 {cf. xirma}

 ↑

suksa
{suk }
sudden
x1 {event/state}
is sudden/sharply changes at stage/point x2 in process/property/function x3 {also abrupt, discontinuous}; {cf. spaji, vitci, vlile}

 ↑

sumji
{suj }
sum
x1 is a mathematical sum/result/total of x2 plus/increased by x3 {cf. jmina, jalge, mulno, pilji}

 ↑

sumne
{}
smell
x1 {experiencer}
smells/scents {transitive verb}
x2; x2 smells/has odor/scent to observer
x1 {cf. nazbi, panci, cpina, ganse, zgana}

 ↑

sumti
{sum su'i }
argument
x1 is a/the argument of predicate/function x2 filling place x3 {kind/number}

 ↑

{
x1 and x2 are text}

 ↑

; {cf. bridi, darlu, gismu}

 ↑

sunga
{sug }
garlic
x1 is a quantity of garlic {bulb}
of species/strain x2 {cf. stagi}

 ↑

sunla
{sul }
wool
x1 is a quantity of/made from/consists of wool {tight curly hair}
from animal/species/source x2 {cf. kosta, kumte, lanme, kanba, bukpu, kerfa}

 ↑

surla
{sur }
relax
x1 relaxes/rests/is at ease in/by doing/being x2 {activity}

 ↑

{cf. dunku, tatpi, cando, vreta}

 ↑

sutra
{sut }
fast ; 'swift'
x1 is fast/swift/quick/hastes/rapid at doing/being/bringing about x2 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. masno}

 ↑

 ↑

ta
{taz }
that there pro-sumti: that there; nearby demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near listener tabno
{tab }
carbon
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of carbon/graphite/{diamond}/charcoal;
x1 is organic {cf. kolme}

 ↑

tabra
{}
trumpet ; 'brass'
x1 is a horn/trumpet/trombone/bugle {brass-wind/lip-reed musical instrument} {cf. zgike}

 ↑

tadji
{}
method
x1 {process}
is a method/technique/approach/means for doing x2 {event}
under conditions x3 {also practice/way/mode; style/manner/conduct {= tratadji}

 ↑

; pattern {= montadji, tadjymo'a, or platadji, tadjypla}

 ↑

}; {cf. ciste, pruce, zukte, pluta, cmavo list tai}

 ↑

tadni
{tad }
study
x1 studies/is a student of x2;
x1 is a scholar; {adjective:}

x1 is scholarly {cf. ckule, cilre, ctuca}

 ↑

tagji
{tag }
snug ; 'tight'
x1 is snug/tight on x2 in dimension/direction x3 at locus x4 {cf. trati, jarki, kluza, rinju}

 ↑

talsa
{tal }
challenge
x1 {person}
challenges x2 at/in property x3 {cf. jinga, damba, darlu, jivna, nandu for a challenging event/situation}

 ↑

tamca
{}
tomato
x1 is a tomato {fruit/vegetable/plant}
of species/strain x2 {cf. grute, stagi}

 ↑

tamji
{taj }
thumb
x1 is a/the thumb/big toe {body-part}
on limb x2 of x3; {metaphor based on relative shape} {thumb {specifically the hand = xantamji}

 ↑

, big toe {= jmatamji}

 ↑

}; {cf. degji, tance, xance, jamfu}

 ↑

tamne
{}
cousin
x1 is cousin to x2 by bond/tie x3; {non-immediate family member, default same generation} {probably preferred for metaphorical siblings {over bruna}

 ↑

}
{cf. dzena, famti, mensi, bruna, tunba}

 ↑

tanbo
{ta'o }
board
x1 is a board/plank {3-dimensional long flat rectangle}
of material x2 {cf. bliku, kubli}

 ↑

tance
{tac }
tongue
x1 is a/the tongue {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: similar to nazbi, tamji, degji}

 ↑

{{adjective:}

x1 is lingual}; {cf. moklu, bangu, nazbi, tamji, degji}

 ↑

tanjo
{}
tangent
x1 is the trigonometric tangent of angle x2 {cf. sinso}

 ↑

tanko
{}
tobacco
x1 is a quantity of tobacco {leaf}
of species/strain x2 {cf. sigja, marna}

 ↑

tanru
{tau }
phrase compound
x1 is a binary metaphor formed with x2 modifying x3, giving meaning x4 in language x5 {x2 and x3 are both text or both si'o concept}
{cf. , gismu, smuni}

 ↑

tansi
{tas }
pan
x1 is a pan/basin/tub/sink, a shallow container for contents x2, of material/properties x3 {also bowl}; {cf. baktu, palne, palta, patxu, kabri for a bowl that is normally lifted for use, botpi}

 ↑

tanxe
{tax ta'e }
box ; 'trunk'
x1 is a box/carton/trunk/crate for contents x2, and made of material x3 {cf. bakfu, botpi, cutne, dacru}

 ↑

tapla
{}
tile
x1 is a tile/cake {shape/form}
of material x2, shape x3, thickness x4 {a tile is a 3 dimensional object, relatively uniform and significant in the 3rd dimension, but thin enough that its shape in the the other two dimensions is a significant feature; 'city block' is conceptually a tile; polygon {= taplytai or kardytai - shaped like an approximately-2-dimensional block, li'irclupa - a loop composed of lines}

 ↑

}; {cf. bliku, kubli, matci; karda, for which the 3rd dimension is insignificant, bliku, kurfa, matci, plita, tarmi}

 ↑

tarbi
{}
embryo
x1 is an embryo/zygote/fetus/fertilized egg with mother x2, and father x3 {cf. gutra, mamta, patfu, sovda, rorci, tsiju, grute}

 ↑

tarci
{tar }
star
x1 is a star/sun with stellar properties x2 {cf. solri, tsani}

 ↑

tarla
{}
tar
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tar/asphalt from source x2 {cf. kolme, pesxu, snipa}

 ↑

tarmi
{tam tai }
shape ; 'form'
x1 {ideal}
is the conceptual shape/form of object/abstraction/manifestation x2 {object/abstract {also pattern;
x1 is the mathematical or theoretical ideal form, while x2 is an object/event manifesting that form; e.g. circular/circle-shaped {= cukseltai}
vs. circle {=cuktai, while cukla alone is ambiguous}

 ↑

; model {= ci'ersaptai, saptai, ci'ersmitai, smitai}

 ↑

}; {cf. nejni, morna; te marji for physical shape, tapla, bliku, kubli, kurfa, cukla, mapti, morna, sarlu}

 ↑

tarti
{tra }
behave
x1 behaves/conducts oneself as/in-manner x2 {event/property}
under conditions x3 {also {adjective:}

x1 is behavioral}; {cf. cnano, frati, tcaci, cilce, jikca, marde}

 ↑

taske
{}
thirst
x1 thirsts for x2;
x1 needs/wants drink/fluid/lubrication x2 {cf. nitcu, djica, xagji, pinxe}

 ↑

tatpi
{ta'i }
tired
x1 is tired/fatigued by effort/situation x2 {event}

 ↑

;
x1 needs/wants rest {cf. cikna, sipna, surla}

 ↑

tatru
{tat }
breast ; 'teat'
x1 is a/the breast/mammary/teat {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: projection providing liquid} {cf. ladru, mabru}

 ↑

tavla
{tav ta'a }
talk ; 'palaver'
x1 talks/speaks to x2 about subject x3 in language x4 {not limited to vocal speech, but this is implied by the x4 without context of some other media of conversation {use cusku, casnu, skicu, ciksi for weaker implication of vocal communication}

 ↑

; converse/discuss/chat {= simta'a, simsku, vricysimta'a for a conversation not clearly delimited by subject}

 ↑

}; {cf. bacru, cusku for actual expression, casnu, darlu, skicu, ciksi, bangu}

 ↑

taxfu
{taf ta'u }
garment
x1 is dress/a garment/clothing for wearing by x2 {gender/species/body part}
serving purpose x3 {also:
x1 can wear/is wearing x2; refers to something intended for use as a garment, not merely something that happens to be worn at some time {which need not be true for dasni}

 ↑

}; {cf. creka, cutci, daski, dasni, gluta, kosta, mapku, palku, pastu, skaci, smoka, lunbe}

 ↑

tcaci
{cac }
custom ; 'habit'
x1 is a custom/habit/{ritual/rut}
of x2 under conditions x3 {also:
x1 is customary/usual/the practice}; {cf. fadni, kampu, lakne, jinzi, ckaji, cnano, tarti, ritli, javni, zekri}

 ↑

tcadu
{tca }
city ; 'town'
x1 is a town/city of metropolitan area x2, in political unit x3, serving hinterland/region x4 {also {adjective:}

x1 is urban}; {cf. jarbu, nurma, cecmu, jarbu}

 ↑

tcana
{}
station
x1 is a station/node of/in/on transport/communication/distribution system/network x2 {x2 may be represented by massed vehicles of system}; {cf. dargu, litru, pluta, trene, ciste, ve mrilu, tivni, cradi, ve benji, fonxa, dikca, fatri}

 ↑

tcati
{}
tea
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of tea brewed from leaves x2 {cf. ckafi}

 ↑

tcena
{ten }
stretch
x1 stretches/extends to range x2 {interval/extent}
in dimension x3 from relaxed range x4 {cf. kuspe, pruni, preja, ranji, trati}

 ↑

tcica
{tic }
deceive ; 'cheat, trick'
x1 {event/experience}
misleads/deceives/dupes/fools/cheats/tricks x2 into x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{agentive deception {= tcicygau, tcicyzu'e}

 ↑

; x3 could be an action or a belief on the part of x2; harmful intent or result is not implied {= maltcicyzu'e for such harmful intent}

 ↑

; self deception {= sevytcica}

 ↑

; deceive/trick into misguided action {= ticyxlu}

 ↑

; misguided belief {= tickri}

 ↑

; lie/tell an untruth {= ticysku, jifsku}

 ↑

, white lie {= zanticysku}

 ↑

}; {cf. stace, xlura, stidi, kajde}

 ↑

tcidu
{tid }
read
x1 {agent}
reads x2 {text}
from surface/document/reading material x3;
x1 is a reader {cf. ciska, cukta, karni}

 ↑

tcika
{}
time of day
x1 {hours, {minutes}, {seconds}}
is the time/hour of state/event x2 on day x3 at location x4 {also o'clock}; {time units in
x1 are specified as numbers separated by pi'e or are unit values massified with joi}

 ↑

; {cf. cmavo list ti'u, cacra, cerni, detri, donri, djedi, junla, nicte, mentu, snidu, temci, vanci, dirba, mokca}

 ↑

tcila
{til }
detail
x1 is a detail/feature/particular of x2 {cf. diklo, steci}

 ↑

tcima
{tim ti'a }
weather ; 'climate'
x1 is weather at place/region x2; {adjective:}

x1 is meteorological {climate {= citsyti'a, timymo'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. brife, bumru, carvi, dilnu, bratu}

 ↑

tcini
{}
situation ; 'state'
x1 {state/property}
is a situation/condition/state/position/are conditions/circumstances of x2 {characteristics or environment of an object/event/process stage or state that are typically/potentially only temporary}; {cf. stuzi, zvati, vanbi, ve pruce, ckaji, zasni}

 ↑

tcita
{}
label ; 'tag'
x1 is a label/tag of x2 showing information x3 {cf. sinxa, cmene, judri}

 ↑

te
{ter }
3rd conversion 3rd conversion; switch 1st/3rd places temci
{tem tei }
time
x1 is the time-duration/interval/period/{elapsed time}
from time/event x2 to time/event x3 {also age/elapsed time {= niltei}

 ↑

}; {cf. cacra, cedra, citsi, ranji, tcika, junla, renvi}

 ↑

tenfa
{tef }
exponential
x1 is the exponential result of base x2 to power/exponent x3 {cf. dugri}

 ↑

tengu
{teg te'u }
texture
x1 {property-ka}
is a texture of x2 {cf. rufsu, xutla}

 ↑

terdi
{ted }
earth ; 'terrestrial'
x1 is the Earth/the home planet of race x2; {adjective:}

x1 is terrestrial/earthbound {cf. lunra, plini, solri, kensa, tsani; dertu for ground, dirt, except when used to express physical relative frame of reference {e.g. on the ground, the ground beneath us}, tsani}

 ↑

terpa
{tep te'a }
fear ; 'terror'
x1 fears x2;
x1 is afraid/scared/frightened by/fearful of x2 {event/tu'a object}

 ↑

{x2 is fearsome/fearful/frightening/scary to
x1 {= selte'a to reorder places}

 ↑

}; {cf. snura, xalni, xanka, virnu}

 ↑

terto
{tet }
1E12 ; metric 'tera'
x1 is a trillion {1
x10**12}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

ti
{tif }
this here pro-sumti: this here; immediate demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near speaker tigni
{tig }
perform
x1 performs x2 {performance}
for/before audience x3 {cf. jarco}

 ↑

tikpa
{tip }
kick
x1 kicks {hits with
x1's foot/feet x4}
x2 in/at locus x3, using
x1's foot/feet x4 {cf. tunta, darxi}

 ↑

tilju
{tij }
heavy ; 'weighty'
x1 is heavy/weighty in mass/weight by standard x2 {cf. linto; carmi, se junri for metaphor, bunda, junta}

 ↑

tinbe
{tib }
obey
x1 obeys/follows the command/rule x2 made by x3; {adjective:}

x1 is obedient {cf. minde, lacri, javni, flalu, zekri}

 ↑

tinci
{}
tin
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of tin {Sn}

 ↑

; {metaphor: cheap or base metal} {cf. gunma, lante, boxfo, cnisa, jinme}

 ↑

tinsa
{}
stiff
x1 is stiff/rigid/inflexible/resistant in direction x2 against force x3 under conditions x4 {also sometimes: firm, hard; not limited to physical forces; e.g. mental rigidity}; {cf. bapli, jdari, nandu, torni, trati, xarnu, danre, stodi}

 ↑

tirna
{tin }
hear
x1 hears x2 against background/noise x3; x2 is audible; {adjective:}

x1 is aural {cf. kerlo, sance, smaji, savru, voksa, ganse, zgana}

 ↑

tirse
{tir }
iron
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of iron {Fe}

 ↑

; {metaphor: strong tarnishing} {also {adjective:}

x1 is ferric/ferrous}; {cf. jinme, gasta, molki}

 ↑

tirxu
{}
tiger
x1 is a tiger/leopard/jaguar/{tigress}
of species/breed x2 with coat markings x3 {a great cat noted/recognized by its markings, metaphorically: stripes, tiger markings}; {cf. mlatu}

 ↑

tisna
{tis }
fill ; 'stuff'
x1 {object}
fills/becomes stuffed {up}/inflates/blows up with material x2; x2 pours into
x1 {implies some relative degree of fullness will result; agentive filling {= tisyse'a, tisygau, tisyzu'e}

 ↑

; inflate/become inflated/blow up {= gacytisna, agentive gacysetca}

 ↑

; pour into {= liktisna, agentive liksetca}

 ↑

}; {cf. culno, kunti, rinci, setca}

 ↑

titla
{tit }
sweet
x1 is sweet/sugary/saccharine to observer x2 {cf. sakta, slari, kurki}

 ↑

tivni
{tiv }
television
x1 {broadcaster}
televises programming x2 via media/channel x3 to television receiver x4 {x2 programming {mass}

 ↑

, program/show {ind.}

 ↑

}; {cf. cradi, skina, vidni, benji, tcana}

 ↑

tixnu
{tix ti'u }
daughter
x1 is a daughter of mother/father/parents x2; {not necessarily biological} {cf. bersa, panzi}

 ↑

to'e
{tol to'e }
polar opposite polar opposite scalar negator {cf. dukti, natfe, cmavo list na'e, no'e}

 ↑

toknu
{tok }
oven
x1 is an oven {enclosure that heats its contents}
for baking/heating/drying x2 {cf. nanba}

 ↑

toldi
{tod }
butterfly
x1 is a butterfly/moth of species/breed x2 {cf. cinki}

 ↑

tonga
{tog to'a }
tone
x1 is a tone/note of frequency/pitch x2 from source x3 {cf. rilti, zgike, janbe, siclu}

 ↑

tordu
{tor to'u }
short
x1 is short in dimension/direction x2 {default longest dimens.}
by meas. stand. x3 {cf. cmalu, jarki, caxno, cinla, clani}

 ↑

torni
{ton to'i }
twist ; 'torsion'
x1 twists under load/force/torsion x2 {cf. tinsa, trati}

 ↑

traji
{rai }
superlative ; 'extreme'
x1 is superlative in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

, the x3 extreme {ka; default ka zmadu}
among set/range x4 {also:
x1 is x3-est/utmost in x2 among x4;
x1 is extreme;
x1 is simply x3}; {cf. cmavo list rai, jimte, milxe, mutce, note contrast with milxe and mutce rather than with mleca and zmadu, which are values for x3, banli, curve, fanmo, krasi, manfo, prane}

 ↑

trano
{}
nitrogen
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of nitrogen/ammonia/nitrates {{adjective:}

x1 is nitric/nitrous}; {cf. vacri}

 ↑

trati
{}
taut
x1 is taut/tense/strained tight in direction x2 {cf. tinsa, torni, tagji, tcena, kluza}

 ↑

trene
{ren re'e }
train
x1 is a train {vehicle}
of cars/units x2 {mass}
for rails/system/railroad x3, propelled by x4 {a railed vehicle or train of vehicles; also subway, metro, trolley, tramway, roller coaster; monorail {= dudre'e}

 ↑

; cable car, sky car, ski lift {= cildudre'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. tcana}

 ↑

tricu
{ric }
tree
x1 is a tree of species/cultivar x2 {cf. cindu, ckunu, pezli, mudri, spati}

 ↑

trina
{tri }
attract
x1 attracts/appeals to/lures x2 {person/event}
with property/quality x3 {ka}

 ↑

{also:
x1 is alluring to x2}; {cf. djica, nelci, rigni, xlura, maksi}

 ↑

trixe
{rix ti'e }
behind
x1 is posterior/behind/back/in the rear of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3 {also: x3 is the standard of orientation for x2; spine {= rixybo'u, rixybo'ukamju}

 ↑

}; {cf. crane, rebla, mlana, pritu, zunle}

 ↑

troci
{toc toi }
try
x1 tries/attempts/makes an effort to do/attain x2 {event/state/property}
by actions/method x3 {also experiments at}; {cf. fliba, snada, cipra}

 ↑

tsali
{tsa }
strong
x1 is strong/powerful/{tough}
in property/quality x2 {ka}
by standard x3 {cf. ralci, ruble, carmi, vlipa}

 ↑

tsani
{tan }
sky
x1 is an expanse of sky/the heavens at place x2; {celestial} {cf. gapru, kensa, tarci, terdi}

 ↑

tsapi
{}
seasoning
x1 is a seasoning/condiment/spice causing flavor/effect x2 {event/property}

 ↑

{also:
x1 flavors x2 {tu'a}

 ↑

}; {cf. vrusi}

 ↑

tsiju
{tsi }
seed
x1{s}
is/are {a}
seed{s}

 ↑

/spore{s}
{body-part}
of organism x2 for producing offspring x3 {also germ cell; implies actual potential for self-development; seeds generally contain embryo and food, and hence would include a fertilized egg}
{cf. tarbi, dembi, grute, jbari, sombo, spati, sovda}

 ↑

tsina
{sin }
stage
x1 is a stage/platform/dais/{scaffold}
at/in x2 supporting x3, made of material x4 {x3 object/event}

 ↑

; {cf. greku, jubme}

 ↑

tu
{tuf }
that yonder pro-sumti: that yonder; distant demonstrative it; indicated thing far from speaker & listener tubnu
{tu'u }
tube
x1 is a length of tubing/pipe/hollow cylinder {shape/form}
of material x2, hollow of material x {also sleeve, leg, hose, {adjective:}
tubular}; {cf. kevna, canlu}

 ↑

tugni
{tug tu'i }
agree
x1 {person}
agrees with person{s}

 ↑

/position/side x2 that x3 {du'u}
is true about matter x4 {cf. sarxe, mapti, darlu, natfe, panpi, sarji}

 ↑

tujli
{tuj }
tulip
x1 is a tulip {defined by flower shape}
of species/strain x2 {cf. spati}

 ↑

tumla
{tum tu'a }
land
x1 is a parcel/expanse of land at location x2;
x1 is terrain {cf. vacri, xamsi; tutra, which need not be land, gugde, xamsi}

 ↑

tunba
{tub }
sibling
x1 is a sibling of x2 by bond/tie/standard/parent{s}
x3 {cf. bruna, mensi, tamne}

 ↑

tunka
{tuk }
copper
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of copper {Cu}

 ↑

; {metaphor: reddish, electrical conductor} {cf. jinme, lastu, ransu}

 ↑

tunlo
{tul tu'o }
swallow
x1 gulps/swallows {
x1 swallows down {food/drink}
x2 {= tulpinxe, tulcti, ctitu'o {the latter two are more general - for food or beverage}

 ↑

; swallow/engulf {= galxycti, galxynerbi'o, galxygre}; {cf. citka, pinxe, galxe}

 ↑

tunta
{tun }
poke ; 'stab'
x1 {object, usually pointed}
pokes/jabs/stabs/prods x2 {experiencer}

 ↑

{agentive {= tungau, tunzu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. balre, dakfu, darxi, fanza, jicla, katna, tikpa}

 ↑

tuple
{tup tu'e }
leg
x1 is a/the leg {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: supporting branch} {cf. stani, zbepi, jamfu, jimca, sanli}

 ↑

turni
{tru }
govern
x1 governs/rules/is ruler/governor/sovereign/reigns over people/territory/domain/subjects x2 {x2 need not be complete specification of set of governed; reign/rule {= noltru}

 ↑

; king/queen/sovereign {= nolraitru}

 ↑

; pure democracy {= roltru}

 ↑

, representative democracy {= rolka'itru}

 ↑

, viceroy {= ka'itru}

 ↑

, pure communism {= guntru}

 ↑

, board of directors/trustees, steering committee {= trukamni}

 ↑

; government {= trugunma, trugri {emphasizing the components}

 ↑

, truci'e {emphasizing the organization}

 ↑

}

 ↑

}; {cf. catni, minde, tutra, jecta, gugde, ponse, jitro}

 ↑

tutci
{tci }
tool
x1 is a tool/utensil/resource/instrument/implement used for doing x2; {form determines function {cf. cabra, minji, se pilno, zukte, sazri, basic tool types: salpo, pulni, cfine, klupe, jendu, xislu, vraga; utensils: forca, smuci, dakfu; specifics: balre, mruli, cinza, garna, pijne, pambe, canpa, pilno, vraga}

 ↑

tutra
{tut }
territory
x1 is territory/domain/space of/belonging to/controlled by x2 {cf. catni, turni, jecta, gugde, ponse, steci, tumla}

 ↑

 ↑

va
{vaz }
there at location tense distance: near to ... ; there at ...; a medium/small distance from ... vacri
{var }
air
x1 is a quantity of air/normally-gaseous atmosphere of planet x2, of composition including x3 {cf. gapci, kijno, trano, tumla, vasxu, xamsi}

 ↑

vajni
{vaj vai }
important ; 'significant'
x1 {object/event}
is important/significant to x2 {person/event}
in aspect/for reason x3 {nu/ka}

 ↑

{also:
x1 matters to x2 in aspect/respect x3}; {cf. banli, ralju, vamji, dirba, kargu, pajni}

 ↑

valsi
{val vla }
word
x1 is a word meaning/causing x2 in language x3; {adjective:
x1 is lexical/verbal}

 ↑

{cf. slaka, bangu, cmavo, cmene, gismu, jufra, rafsi, smuni}

 ↑

vamji
{vam va'i }
value
x1 {ni}
is the equivalent value/worth of x2 {item{s}
of value}
to x3 for use/appreciation x4 {also: x2 is worth
x1 to x3; {for x2 person:}
x2 merits {one sense}

 ↑

, {adjective:}
x2 is worthy {= selva'i for reordered places}

 ↑

; merit reward {= nemselva'i}

 ↑

; receive merited reward {= vamselne'u}

 ↑

; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erva'i, po'erselva'i for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. jdima, jerna, vecnu, dirba, janta, kargu, pleji; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, vajni}

 ↑

vamtu
{vat }
vomit
x1 vomits/regurgitates x2;
x1 throws x2 up; {violent}
digestive expulsion {x2 is non-gaseous}

 ↑

; {cf. rigni, jetce, kafke, sputu}

 ↑

vanbi
{vab }
environment ; 'ambient'
x1 {ind./mass}
is part of an environment/surroundings/context/ambience of x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is ambient}; {cf. cmavo list va'o, sruri, jibni, jbini, ferti, tcini}

 ↑

vanci
{vac }
evening
x1 is an evening {from end-of-work until sleep typical for locale}
of day x2 at location x3 {this evening {= cabvanci}

 ↑

; tomorrow evening {= bavlamvanci}

 ↑

; yesterday evening {= prulamvanci}

 ↑

}; {cf. cerni, murse, tcika}

 ↑

vanju
{van }
wine
x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of wine from fruit/grapes x2 {cf. barja, birje, xalka, jikru, fusra}

 ↑

vasru
{vas vau }
contain ; 'vessel'
x1 contains/holds/encloses/includes contents x2 within;
x1 is a vessel containing x2 {also accommodates, container; containment need not be total; x2 is {contained}
in
x1 {= selvau for reordered places}

 ↑

}; {cf. bartu, jbini, nenri, zvati, cpana, botpi, lanka}

 ↑

vasxu
{vax va'u }
breathe ; 'vascular'
x1 breathes/respires x2 {gas} {though used to make the Lojban word, clue word vascular is erroneous, actually pertaining to the circulatory system that carries the respired oxygen to the tissues}

 ↑

; {cf. fepri, kijno, vacri}

 ↑

ve
{vel }
4th conversion 4th conversion; switch 1st/4th places ve'e
{ve'e }
whole space interval location tense interval: the whole of space {rafsi is used to represent any space interval}

 ↑

vecnu
{ven ve'u }
sell ; 'vend'
x1 {seller}
sells/vends x2 {goods/service/commodity}
to buyer x3 for amount/cost/expense x4 {
x1 is a salesperson/salesman/vendor; x3 buys x2 from
x1 {= terve'u for reordered terms}

 ↑

; x4 is the price of x2 to x3 {= velve'u for reordered terms}

 ↑

; for sale {= fitselve'u, selvenfriti}

 ↑

; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity {mass}

 ↑

, an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity {= po'erve'u, po'erselve'u for unambiguous semantics}

 ↑

}; {cf. canja, dunda, janta, pleji, jerna, kargu, prali, zarci, vamji, jdima; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, fepni, friti, jerna, rupnu}

 ↑

venfu
{vef }
revenge ; 'avenge'
x1 takes revenge on/retaliates against x2 {person}
for wrong x3 {nu}
with vengeance x4 {nu}

 ↑

{also avenge; {adjective:}

x1 is vengeful}; {cf. sfasa, cnemu}

 ↑

vensa
{ves }
spring ; 'vernal'
x1 is spring/springtime {warming season}
of year x2 at location x3; {adjective:}

x1 is vernal {cf. citsi, crisa, critu, dunra}

 ↑

verba
{ver ve'a }
child
x1 is a child/kid/juvenile {a young person}
of age x2, immature by standard x3 {not necessarily human}; {cf. cifnu, makcu, citno, panzi, nanla, nixli, se rirni, bersa}

 ↑

vi
{viz }
here at location tense distance: here at ... ; at, near, or a very short/tiny distance from ... {cf. stuzi, zvati, jibni}

 ↑

vibna
{vib }
vagina
x1 is a/the vagina {body-part}
of x2 {cf. cinse, gletu, pinji, plibu, vlagi, mabla}

 ↑

vidni
{}
video
x1 is a video monitor/CRT/screen {machine}
serving function x2 {cf. skina, ve tivni}

 ↑

vidru
{vir }
virus
x1 is a virus of species/breed/defining property x2 capable of infecting {at}
x3 {cf. jurme}

 ↑

vifne
{vif }
fresh {adjective:}

x1 is fresh/unspoiled {cf. fusra}

 ↑

vikmi
{vim vi'i }
excrete
x1 {body}
excretes waste x2 from source x3 via means/route x4 {cf. cigla, kalci, pinca, xasne}

 ↑

viknu
{vik }
viscous ; 'thick'
x1 is thick/viscous under conditions x2 {cf. denmi, snipa}

 ↑

vimcu
{vic vi'u }
remove
x1 removes/subtracts/deducts/takes away x2 from x3 with/leaving result/remnant/remainder x4 {also appropriates, confiscates; alienation is inherent}; {cf. lebna, muvdu, cpacu, canci, cliva, jdika}

 ↑

vindu
{vid }
poison ; 'venom'
x1 is poisonous/venomous/toxic/a toxin to x2 {cf. since}

 ↑

vinji
{vij }
airplane
x1 is an airplane/aircraft {flying vehicle}
for carrying passengers/cargo x2, propelled by x3 {cf. vofli, sabnu}

 ↑

vipsi
{vip }
deputy ; 'vice'
x1 is a deputy/vice/subordinate in aspect {or organization principle}
x2 {ka}
to principal x3 {also assistant, adjutant}; {cf. krati, sidju}

 ↑

virnu
{vri }
brave ; 'valiant, virtue'
x1 is brave/valiant/courageous in activity x2 {event}
by standard x3 {cf. terpa, darsi}

 ↑

viska
{vis vi'a }
see ; 'vision'
x1 sees/perceives visually x2 under conditions x3 {also {adjective:}

x1 is visual; x3 can include ambient lighting, background, etc. which may affect what is perceived; note that English "see" often means "look" or a more generic "observe", or even "understand, know"}; {cf. catlu, jvinu, kanla, minra, simlu, djuno, jimpe, zgana, ganse}

 ↑

vitci
{vit }
irregular ; 'intermittent'
x1 is irregular/occasional/intermittent in property/action/aspect x2 {cf. ranji, rufsu, suksa}

 ↑

vitke
{vi'e }
guest ; 'visit'
x1 is a guest/visitor of x2 at place/event x3;
x1 visits x2/x3 {cf. friti, klama, zasni, xabju, zvati}

 ↑

vitno
{vi'o }
permanent ; 'eternal'
x1 is permanent/lasting/{eternal}
in property x2 {ka}
by standard x3 {time-span/expectant one} {also everlasting}; {cf. stodi, cimni, zasni, manfo, stali}

 ↑

vlagi
{lag }
vulva
x1 is a/the vulva {body-part}
of x2 {cf. cinse, gletu, pinji, plibu, vibna, mabla}

 ↑

vlile
{vil }
violent
x1 is an event/state/act of violence {cf. suksa, jursa}

 ↑

vlina
{}
alternation
x1 is a logical alternation/disjunction, stating that x2 {du'u}
and/or x3 {du'u}
is/are true {cf. kanxe, cmavo list a, ja, gi'a, gu'a}

 ↑

vlipa
{vli }
powerful
x1 has the power to bring about x2 under conditions x3;
x1 is powerful in aspect x2 under x3 {also potent, has control/mastery}; {cf. tsali, jitro, ruble}

 ↑

vo
{von }
4 digit/number: 4 {digit}

 ↑

vofli
{vol voi }
flight ; 'fly'
x1 flies {in air/atmosphere}
using lifting/propulsion means x2 {cf. cipni, klama, vinji}

 ↑

voksa
{vok vo'a }
voice
x1 is a voice/speech sound of individual x2 {cf. sance, tirna, bacru}

 ↑

vorme
{vor vro }
door
x1 is a doorway/gateway/access way between x2 and x3 of structure x4 {note: emphasis on route nature; solid door: vrogai/vrobi'u/vrozu'itci}; {cf. canko, ganlo, kalri, murta, pagre, bitmu, kuspe}

 ↑

vraga
{vra }
lever
x1 is a lever {tool}
{of apparatus}
for doing x2 {function/action}, with fulcrum x3 and arm x4 {cf. tutci, pulni}

 ↑

vreji
{rej vei }
record
x1 is a record of x2 {data/facts/du'u}
about x3 {object/event}
preserved in medium x4 {cf. sorcu, datni, papri}

 ↑

vreta
{vre }
reclining ; 'rest'
x1 lies/rests/reclines/reposes on x2;
x1 is reclining/recumbent/lying on x2 {cf. cpana, surla, zutse, ckana, lazni}

 ↑

vrici
{}
miscellaneous ; 'various'
x1 {set/mass/ind.}
is miscellaneous/various/assorted in property x2 {ka}

 ↑

{cf. klesi, girzu, frica, simsa, panra}

 ↑

vrude
{vud vu'e }
virtue
x1 is virtuous/saintly/{fine/moral/nice/holy/morally good}
by standard x2 {holy/saintly {= cesyvu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. palci, xamgu, marde, zabna}

 ↑

vrusi
{vus vu'i }
taste ; 'flavor'
x1 {ka}
is a taste/flavor of/emitted by x2; x2 tastes of/like
x1 {also: x2 tastes of seasoning
x1,
x1 is a seasoned flavor of x2 {= tsapyvu'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. kukte, tsapi, cpina}

 ↑

vu
{vuz }
yonder at location tense distance: far from ... ; yonder at ... ; a long distance from ... {cf. darno, cmavo list vi, va}

 ↑

vukro
{vur vu'o }
Ukrainian
x1 reflects Ukrainian language/culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. slovo, softo}

 ↑

 ↑

xa
{xav }
6 digit/number: 6 {digit}

 ↑

xabju
{xa'u }
dwell ; 'inhabit'
x1 dwells/lives/resides/abides at/inhabits/is a resident of location/habitat/nest/home/abode x2 {cf. ginka, zdani, zvati, stuzi, jmive, stali, vitke}

 ↑

xadba
{xab }
half
x1 is exactly/approximately half/semi-/demi-/hemi- of x2 by standard x3 {cf. mulno, pagbu}

 ↑

xadni
{xad }
body
x1 is a/the body/corpus/corpse of x2; {adjective:}

x1 is corporal/corporeal {cf. menli, pruxi, sluji, mulno, cutne}

 ↑

xagji
{}
hunger
x1 hungers for x2;
x1 needs/wants food/fuel x2 {cf. cidja, citka, djica, nitcu, taske}

 ↑

xagri
{}
reed
x1 is a oboe/clarinet/saxophone {reed musical instrument}
with reed x2 {cf. zgike}

 ↑

xajmi
{xam }
funny ; 'comic'
x1 is funny/comical to x2 in property/aspect x3 {nu/ka}

 ↑

; x3 is what is funny about
x1 to x2 {also:
x1 is a comedian {= xampre, xamseljibri for a professional comedian}

 ↑

}; {
x1 can be a person/object or an abstraction; be careful about possible sumti-raising}

 ↑

; {cf. bebna, cisma, cmila, fenki, zdile}

 ↑

xaksu
{xak }
use up
x1 {event}
uses up/depletes/consumes/{wastes}
x2 {resource} {waste {= fesxaksu, dusxaksu}

 ↑

}; {cf. citka, festi, daspo, livla, pinxe}

 ↑

xalbo
{}
levity ; 'frivolous'
x1 uses levity/is non-serious/frivolous about x2 {abstraction}

 ↑

{cf. junri, linto}

 ↑

xalka
{xal }
alcohol
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of alcohol of type x2 from source/process x3 {cf. birje, jikru, vanju}

 ↑

xalni
{}
panic
x1 {person}
is panicked by crisis x2 {event/state}

 ↑

{cf. ckape, snura, terpa, xanka}

 ↑

xamgu
{xag xau }
good
x1 {object/event}
is good/beneficial/nice/{acceptable}
for x2 by standard x3 {acceptable {= mlixau, norxau, xagyselcru}

 ↑

}; {cf. melbi, xlali, vrude, zabna}

 ↑

xampo
{xap xa'o }
ampere
x1 is x2 ampere{s}
{metric}
in current {default is 1}
by standard x3 {cf. dikca, flecu, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

xamsi
{xas }
sea
x1 is a sea/ocean/gulf/{atmosphere}
of planet x2, of fluid x3; {adjective:}

x1 is marine {also atmosphere {= varxamsi, varsenta}

 ↑

}; {cf. daplu, djacu, lalxu, rirxe, tumla, vacri, zbani, ctaru}

 ↑

xance
{xan xa'e }
hand
x1 is a/the hand {body-part}
of x2; {metaphor: manipulating tool, waldo} {{adjective:}

x1 is manual}; {cf. birka, degji, jitro, xlura, jamfu, tamji}

 ↑

xanka
{}
nervous ; 'anxious'
x1 is nervous/anxious about x2 {abstraction}
under conditions x3 {cf. xalni, terpa, raktu}

 ↑

xanri
{xar }
imaginary ; 'unreal'
x1 {concept}
exists in the imagination of/is imagined by/is imaginary to x2 {also {adjective:}

x1 is mental {one sense}

 ↑

,
x1 is unreal {one sense}

 ↑

; in spite of the synonym, note that x2 is imaginary does not imply that it doesn't exist in the real world; the definition is crafted so that one can talk about imaginary things without claiming that they thereby really exist}; {cf. fatci, senva, sucta, zasti, cfika, dacti, menli, sidbo}

 ↑

xanto
{}
elephant
x1 is an elephant of species/breed x2 {cf. mabru, barda}

 ↑

xarci
{xac xa'i }
weapon ; 'arms'
x1 is a weapon/arms for use against x2 by x3 {gun/cannon {= celxa'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. jenmi, sonci, catra}

 ↑

xarju
{xaj }
pig ; 'hog'
x1 is a pig/hog/swine/{boar}
{pork/ham/bacon-producer}
of species/breed x2 {sow {= fetxarju}

 ↑

, boar {= nakyxarju}

 ↑

, pork {= xajre'u}

 ↑

, piglet {= citxarju}

 ↑

}; {cf. mabru, cange}

 ↑

xarnu
{}
stubborn
x1 is stubborn/willfully opposing/resisting x2 about x3 {event/state}

 ↑

{x2 may be a person, a state or condition, or a force; the essence is willful resistance}; {cf. tinsa, pante, bapli, fapro}

 ↑

xasli
{}
donkey ; 'ass'
x1 is a donkey/jackass of species/breed x2 {cf. xirma, kumte}

 ↑

xasne
{}
sweat
x1 is a/the sweat/perspiration from body x2, excreted by gland{s}

 ↑

/organs x3 {cf. pinca, vikmi, cigla}

 ↑

xatra
{xa'a }
letter
x1 is a letter/missive/{note}
to intended audience x2 from author/originator x3 with content x4 {cf. notci, which has places in a different order; the emphasis in xatra is on the communication between author and recipient, and not the content, which in a letter may not easily be categorized to a 'subject'; ciska, mrilu, papri}

 ↑

xatsi
{xat }
1E-18 ; metric 'atto'
x1 is 1
x10**-18 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xecto, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

xazdo
{xaz zdo }
Asiatic
x1 reflects Asiatic culture/nationality/geography in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

xe
{xel }
5th conversion 5th conversion; switch 1st/5th places xebni
{xen xei }
hate
x1 hates/despises x2 {object/abstraction}

 ↑

;
x1 is full of hate for x2; x2 is odious to
x1 {
x1 is hateful {one sense}

 ↑

; x2 is hateful {different sense}

 ↑

}; {cf. djica, nitcu, rigni, prami, nelci}

 ↑

xebro
{xeb bro }
Hebrew
x1 reflects Hebrew/Jewish/Israeli culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. filso}

 ↑

xecto
{xet cto }
100 ; metric 'hecto'
x1 is a hundred {100; 1
x10**2}
of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xexso, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

xedja
{xej xe'a }
jaw
x1 is a/the jaw {body-part}
of x2 {cf. stedu}

 ↑

xekri
{xek xe'i }
black
x1 is black/extremely dark-colored {color adjective} {cf. blabi, grusi, manku, skari, xekri, kandi, carmi, blanu, bunre, cicna, crino, narju, nukni, pelxu, xunre, zirpu}

 ↑

xelso
{xes }
Greek ; 'Hellas'
x1 reflects Greek/Hellenic culture/nationality/language in aspect x2 {cf. }

 ↑

xendo
{xed xe'o }
kind
x1 {person}
is kind to x2 in actions/behavior x3 {cf. cinmo, kecti, pendo, kusru}

 ↑

xenru
{xer xe'u }
regret ; 'rue'
x1 regrets/rues {abstraction}
x2;
x1 is regretful/rueful/sorry/{remorseful}
about x2 {also:
x1 feels remorse about x2 {= zugyxe'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list .u'u, zungi}

 ↑

xexso
{xex }
1E18 ; metric 'exa'
x1 is 1
x10**18 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, zepti, zetro}

 ↑

xindo
{xin }
Hindi
x1 reflects Hindi language/culture/religion in aspect x2 {defaults to not include Urdu; Indian {Bharat}
nationality may be implied {when constrained by xingu'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. srito, xurdo, bengo}

 ↑

xinmo
{xim }
ink
x1 is a quantity of ink of color/pigment x2 used by writing device x3 {cf. penbi}

 ↑

xirma
{xir xi'a }
horse
x1 is a horse/equine/{colt/mare/stallion/pony}
of species/breed x2 {{adjective:}

x1 is equine/equestrian}; {cf. sufti, xasli, kumte}

 ↑

xislu
{xil xi'u }
wheel
x1 is a wheel {tool}
of device/vehicle x2, made of materials/having properties x3 {cf. carce, karce, pulni, tutci}

 ↑

xispo
{xip }
Hispanic
x1 reflects Hispano-American culture/nationalities in aspect x2 {refers to Spanish-speaking Latin-American countries, not Brazil/Guyana}; {cf. merko, mexno, spano, ketco, bemro, gento}

 ↑

xlali
{xla }
bad ; 'mal-'
x1 is bad for x2 by standard x3;
x1 is poor/unacceptable to x2 {be careful to distinguish between a bad/unacceptable event, and a bad/unacceptable agent:
x1 does poorly {= lenu ko'a gasnu cu xlali and not normally ko'a xlali}

 ↑

}; {cf. palci, mabla, xamgu, betri}

 ↑

xlura
{xlu }
influence ; 'lure'
x1 {agent}
influences/lures/tempts x2 into action/state x3 by influence/threat/lure x4 {also impresses; x4 is alluring {= trivelxlu for place reordering}

 ↑

; x3 may be an achieved action/state, or an attempt to perform an action/enter a state}

 ↑

}; {x3 and x4 are normally events or states}

 ↑

; {cf. djica, mukti, trina, jitro, sazri, tcica, xance, stidi, kajde, maksi}

 ↑

xotli
{xol xoi }
hotel
x1 is a hotel/inn/hostel at location x2 operated by x3 {cf. barja, gusta}

 ↑

xrabo
{rab }
Arabic
x1 reflects Arabic-speaking culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. sadjo, semto, lubno, rakso, sirxo}

 ↑

xrani
{xai }
injure ; 'hurt'
x1 {event}
injures/harms/damages victim x2 in property x3 {ka}
resulting in injury x4 {state}

 ↑

{also hurts}; {cf. cortu, daspo, spofu, katna, porpi}

 ↑

xriso
{xis xi'o }
Christian
x1 pertains to the Christian religion/culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. jegvo, lijda}

 ↑

xruba
{xub }
buckwheat ; 'rhubarb'
x1 is a quantity of buckwheat/rhubarb/sorrel grass of species/strain x2 {cf. spati}

 ↑

xruki
{xuk }
turkey
x1 is a turkey {food/bird}
of species/breed x2 {cf. cipni}

 ↑

xrula
{rul }
flower
x1 is a/the flower/blossom/bloom {body-part}
of plant/species x2; {adjective:}

x1 is floral {cf. spati}

 ↑

xruti
{xru }
return
x1 {agent}
returns x2 to origin/earlier state x3 from x4;
x1 moves/gives x2 back to x3 from x4 {x2 goes back/{retreats}
to x3 {= se'ixru for agent self-returning to a previous location/situation: renumber places in the lujvo}

 ↑

; {x3 may be a location or a person or an event/situation; the latter may also be expressed with krefu or rapli and a causative like rinka/rikygau}

 ↑

}; {cf. benji, krefu, rapli, rinka}

 ↑

xukmi
{xum xu'i }
chemical
x1 is an instance of substance/chemical/drug x2 {individual or mass}
with purity x3 {cf. curve, cidro, marna, nimre}

 ↑

xunre
{xun xu'e }
red
x1 is red/crimson/ruddy {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, nukni, narju, rozgu, zirpu}

 ↑

xurdo
{xur xu'o }
Urdu
x1 reflects Urdu language/culture/nationality in aspect x2 {cf. kisto, srito, xindo}

 ↑

xusra
{xus xu'a }
assert
x1 {agent}
asserts/claims/declares x2 {du'u}
is true {can be used for epistemology of authority {also:
x1 states/says that/affirms/purports to know that x2}; {cf. natfe which is propositional and non-agentive, nupre}

 ↑

xutla
{xul }
smooth
x1 is smooth/even/{soft/silky}
in texture/regularity {cf. plita, rufsu, tengu, dikni, pinta, sakli, spali}

 ↑

 ↑

za'i
{zaz }
state abstract abstractor: state {event}
abstractor;
x1 is continuous state of {bridi}
being true {cf. zasni, zasti, tcini}

 ↑

za'o
{za'o }
superfective interval event contour: continuing too long after natural end of ...; superfective | ----> {cf. dukse}

 ↑

zabna
{zan za'a }
favorable
x1 is a favorable connotation/sense/way-of-looking-at x2 used by x3 {cf. funca, mabla, xamgu, vrude}

 ↑

zajba
{zaj }
gymnast
x1 is a gymnast at/performs gymnastics feat x2 {cf. sluji, dansu}

 ↑

zalvi
{zal }
grind ; 'pulverize'
x1 {individual or mass of hard surfaces}
grinds/pulverizes/crushes x2 into powder x3 {may need mosra tanru}; {cf. daspo, purmo, marxa, pulce, canre, molki}

 ↑

zanru
{zar zau }
approve
x1 approves of/gives favor to plan/action x2 {object/event}

 ↑

{cf. cmavo list zau, natfe}

 ↑

zarci
{zac zai }
market ; 'mart'
x1 is a market/store/exchange/shop{s}
selling/trading {for}
x2, operated by/with participants x {also: mall, marketplace, shopping center, cooperative, bazaar, trading post, mart; the concept is the function of selling/exchanging coupled with a location, and is more oriented to the larger concept of marketplace than the stalls/shops that comprise it, though it does not exclude the latter individual shops {= zarsle}

 ↑

; x3 may include both owners/proprietors and customers in some markets, but in most contexts refers only to the operators}; {cf. vecnu, canja, dinju, banxa}

 ↑

zargu
{zag za'u }
buttock ;
x1 is a/the buttock{s}

 ↑

arse/rear/seat {body-part}
of x2;
{metaphor: rounded surface, support} {also ass, behind, butt}; {cf. ganxo, mabla}

 ↑

zasni
{zas }
temporary ; 'transient'
x1 is temporary/not permanent/expected to change in property x2 {ka}
by standard/expectant x3 {also transient}; {cf. vitno, stodi, cenba, galfi, binxo, stika, stali, tcini, vitke}

 ↑

zasti
{zat za'i }
exist
x1 exists/is real/actual/reality for x2 under metaphysics x3 {words usable for epistemology typically have a du'u place}; {
x1 is physical {one sense}

 ↑

}; {cf. fatci, xanri}

 ↑

zbabu
{bab }
soap
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of soap from source x2 of composition including x3 {cf. lumci, fonmo}

 ↑

zbani
{}
bay
x1 is a bay in/of coast/shoreline x2 {cf. lalxu, xamsi}

 ↑

zbasu
{zba }
make
x1 makes/assembles/builds/manufactures/creates x2 out of materials/parts/components x3 {should not be used to express causation}; {cf. cupra, larcu, rutni, finti, gundi}

 ↑

zbepi
{zbe }
pedestal ; 'base'
x1 is a pedestal/base/stand/pallet supporting x2 {object/event}

 ↑

, of materials/properties x3 {pallet {= lafyzbe}

 ↑

}; {cf. jamfu, jicmu, jubme, tuple, ckana, cpana, loldi, sanli}

 ↑

zdani
{zda }
nest ; 'den'
x1 is a nest/house/lair/den/{home}
of/for x2 {home {= tercnizda}

 ↑

, house {constructed building}
{= zdadi'u}

 ↑

}; {cf. dinju, ginka, kumfa, se xabju}

 ↑

zdile
{zdi }
amusing ; 'amused'
x1 {abstract}
is amusing/entertaining to x2 in property/aspect x3; x3 is what amuses x2 about x {also:
x1 occupies x2 pleasantly;
x1 is fun for x2; x2 is amused by
x1; x2 has fun {at}
doing
x1;
x1 is an amusement/entertainment/{game}
for x2}; {cf. cinri, panka, xajmi for 'funny', kelci}

 ↑

ze
{zel }
7 digit/number: 7 {digit}

 ↑

ze'e
{ze'e }
whole time interval time tense interval: the whole of time {rafsi is used to represent any time interval}

 ↑

ze'o
{zev ze'o }
outward location tense relation/direction; beyond/outward/receding from ... zekri
{zer zei }
crime
x1 {event/state}
is a punishable crime/{taboo/sin}
to people/culture/judges/jury x2 {taboo {= kluzei, cacyzei}

 ↑

; sin {= madzei, jdamadzei}

 ↑

; heresy {= jdazei}

 ↑

}; {cf. flalu, sfasa, zungi, palci, lijda, pajni, javni, tcaci, marde, pulji, tinbe}

 ↑

zenba
{zen ze'a }
increase ; 'augment'
x1 {experiencer}
increases/is incremented/augmented in property/quantity x2 by amount x3 {cf. jdika, zmadu, banro, jmina}

 ↑

zepti
{zep }
1E-21 ; 'zepto'
x1 is 1
x10**-21 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zetro}

 ↑

zetro
{zet }
1E21 ; 'zetta'
x1 is 1
x10**21 of x2 in dimension/aspect x3 {default is units}

 ↑

{cf. grake, mitre, snidu, stero, delno, molro, kelvo, xampo, gradu. litce, merli, centi, decti, dekto, femti, gigdo, gocti, gotro, kilto, megdo, mikri, milti, nanvi, petso, picti, terto, xatsi, xecto, xexso, zepti}

 ↑

zgana
{zga }
observe
x1 observes/{notices}/watches/beholds x2 using senses/means x3 under conditions x4 {behold/watch/gaze {= vi'azga}

 ↑

; guard/watchman/sentinel {= zgaku'i, jdeku'i}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list ga'a, ganse, viska, catlu, tirna, pencu, sumne, kurji, canci, catlu, jarco, lanli, pinka, simlu}

 ↑

zgike
{zgi gi'e }
music
x1 is music performed/produced by x2 {event}

 ↑

{x2 event may be person playing instrument, singing, musical source operating/vibrating, etc.; instrument {= zgica'a}

 ↑

; play an instrument {= zgiterca'a, selgi'egau, selgi'ezu'e}

 ↑

; song {= sa'azgi, selsa'a}

 ↑

; voice, as used musically {= zgivo'a}

 ↑

; composed music {= fingi'e}

 ↑

}; {cf. damri, dansu, flani, janbe, jgita, pipno, rilti, tabra, tonga, xagri, siclu}

 ↑

zifre
{zif zi'e }
free
x1 is free/at liberty to do/be x2 {event/state}
under conditions x3 {also unrestricted, unfettered, unconstrained; {adjective:}
independent; {adverb:}
willingly, voluntarily, freely, may, optionally; {potential:}

x1 voluntarily does x2}; {cf. pinfu, rinju, bilga, curmi, kakne, frili}

 ↑

zinki
{zin zi'i }
zinc
x1 is a quantity of/contains/is made of zinc {Zn}

 ↑

; {metaphor: hard metal} {cf. jinme}

 ↑

zirpu
{zir zi'u }
purple
x1 is purple/violet {color adjective} {cf. skari, blabi, xekri, kandi, carmi, nukni, blanu, xunre}

 ↑

zivle
{ziv vle }
invest
x1 {agent}
invests resources x2 in investment x3 expecting return/profit x4 {object{s}

 ↑

/event}

 ↑

{also ties up/{risks/gambles};
x1 is an investor; x2 are invested assets of
x1; bond {= jertervle}

 ↑

}; {cf. prali, canja, jbera, dejni, ponse}

 ↑

zmadu
{zma mau }
more
x1 exceeds/is more than x2 in property/quantity x3 {ka/ni}
by amount/excess x4 {also positive {= nonmau}

 ↑

}; {cf. cmavo list mau, mleca, zenba, jmina, bancu, dukse, traji}

 ↑

zmiku
{zmi }
automatic
x1 is automatic in function x2 under conditions x3 {cf. macnu}

 ↑

zo'a
{zon zo'a }
tangential to location tense relation/direction; tangential to/passing by ... {cf. pencu, tanjo}

 ↑

zo'i
{zor zo'i }
inward location tense relation/direction; nearer than .../inward/approaching from ... {cf. nenri, setca}

 ↑

zu'o
{zum }
activity abstract abstractor: activity {event}
abstractor;
x1 is abstract activity of {bridi}
composed of x2 {cf. zukte}

 ↑

zukte
{zuk zu'e }
act
x1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x2 for purpose/goal x3/to end x3 {also acting at, undertaking, doing; agentive cause with volition/purpose; also x3 objective, end}; {cf. cmavo list zu'e, bapli, gunka, jalge, krinu, mukti, rinka, snuti, gasnu, fasnu, minji, prenu, ciksi, jibri, pilno, pluta, tadji, tutci}

 ↑

zumri
{zmu }
maize
x1 is a quantity of maize/corn {grain}
of species/strain x2 {cf. gurni}

 ↑

zungi
{zug }
guilt
x1 feels guilt/remorse about x2 {abstraction}

 ↑

{cf. cmavo list .u'u, cinmo, xenru, zekri}

 ↑

zunle
{zul }
left
x1 is to the left/left-hand side of x2 which faces/in-frame-of-reference x3 {also x3 is the standard of orientation for x2}; {cf. cmavo list zu'a, pritu, mlana, crane, trixe, farna}

 ↑

zunti
{zun zu'i }
interfere ; 'hinder'
x1 {evt./state}
interferes with/hinders/disrupts x2 {evt./state/process}
due to quality x3 {ka}

 ↑

{also blocks, obstructs, baffles; not necessarily forcing cessation}
{cf. fanta, dicra, fliba, fanza, raktu, klina, bandu, cfipu, ganlo}

 ↑

zutse
{zut tse }
sit
x1 sits {assumes sitting position}
on surface x2 {cf. stizu, cpana, vreta}

 ↑

zvati
{zva }
at
x1 {object/event}
is at/attending/present at x2 {event/location}

 ↑

{refers to a nonce location for an object/activity that is mobile}; {cf. especially stuzi for an inherent/inalienable location, jbini, nenri, se vasru, cpana, diklo, jibni, cabna, lamji, tcini, xabju, jmive, jundi, vitke}

 ↑

html-ized from the text file by
veion at xiron dot pc dot helsinki dot fi